Mario Simoni
Modelling Molecular Technologies for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Computing.
Rel. Maurizio Zamboni, Mariagrazia Graziano, Gianluca Piccinini. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Ingegneria Elettronica (Electronic Engineering), 2020

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Abstract: 
Standard CMOS circuits are expected to be no longer able to satisfy nowadays demand for higher performances and lower power consumption. This commits to look for new solutions. Quantum computation, whose fundamental quantity of information is the qubit, is a thoroughly new way of thinking to electronics. There are at least two main reasons for which quantum computing is expected to broaden computation horizons. First, specific algorithms can be engineered, manipulating the probability amplitudes of different states, to exploit the quantum superposition principle and achieve high parallelism. Second, it is expected to be spontaneously suitable to simulate complex quantum physical systems, as large molecules. Quantum computing requires the cooperation of several scientific fields. The leading idea has been to highlight the operations and algorithms a quantum computer must be able to perform and, then, to propose a hardware solution, providing the rigorous physical treatment mandatory for a deep understanding and for an appropriate modelling, something which is hard to find in nowadays literature. Thus, the first chapters address the quantum algorithms, focusing on Grover's search algorithm and deriving, from fundamentals, the corresponding circuit. The latter is then described in Quantum Assembly (QASM), which can be seen as the quantum equivalent of VHDL, and simulated on IBM Q Experience. The following chapters deal with a possible physical implementation of quantum processors: the encoding of qubits on nuclear spins in diamagnetic molecules. When a static magnetic field is applied to a spin1/2 nucleus, two welldefined energy eigenstates arise, as a result of the Zeeman effect. Each of them can be associated with a qubit eigenstate. Thanks to nuclear magnetic resonance principles, the probability with which one of the two eigenstates is measured can be handled by the superposition of a radio frequency field at the resonance frequency of the nucleus. This can be interpreted as a rotation of the spin, and so of the qubit, about the RF field and enables the execution of single qubit quantum gates, since they are simple rotations of the state vector. The twoqubit CNOT gate is obtained through the interaction of spins via Jcoupling. Considering that these gates constitute a universal set, every quantum algorithm can theoretically be run on an NMR processor. Different nuclei have different resonant frequencies, but the addressing of a specific spin can be achieved also in homonuclear molecules, since the resonant frequency depends also on the nuclear environment (nuclear shielding). While unwanted Jcouplings can be removed thanks to refocusing, spin decoherence and relaxation phenomena force an upper limit to the allowed timescale. A main advantage of NMR is that this timescale is long, even at room temperature. Conversely, scalability is still an issue. A simple heteronuclear MATLAB model, based on the relations derived from first principles in the thesis, is proposed to prove the feasibility of NMR quantum processors. The input technological parameters, as chemical shielding and Jcoupling, can be computed resorting on ORCA, or obtained from experimental data. The model, able to run a universal set of quantum gates and simple algorithms, can be useful to find an optimal operating point as a compromise between molecule physical properties and the quantities which can be controlled by nowadays NMR instrumentation. 

Relators:  Maurizio Zamboni, Mariagrazia Graziano, Gianluca Piccinini 
Academic year:  2019/20 
Publication type:  Electronic 
Number of Pages:  305 
Subjects:  
Corso di laurea:  Corso di laurea magistrale in Ingegneria Elettronica (Electronic Engineering) 
Classe di laurea:  New organization > Master science > LM29  ELECTRONIC ENGINEERING 
Aziende collaboratrici:  UNSPECIFIED 
URI:  http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/14446 
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