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Evolution of two-wheelers in the direction of connected functions

Valeria Serpagli

Evolution of two-wheelers in the direction of connected functions.

Rel. Claudio Ettore Casetti, Ezio Spessa. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Automotive Engineering (Ingegneria Dell'Autoveicolo), 2024


In a rapidly evolving world shaped by an automotive revolution represented by connected technologies and intelligent functionalities, the increasing connectivity also introduces ground for potential security threats. While in Europe comprehensive laws are in effect for ensuring cybersecurity for 4-wheelers category, the same level of protection is not extended to 2-wheelers. Considering that the 2-wheeler connectivity systems market is in continuous growth with a Compound Annual Growth Rate calculated between 2019 and 2029, of 46%, the absence of analogous cybersecurity laws is posing substantial risks to user security. This thesis, conducted during a six-months internship at Robert Bosch GmbH Branch in Italy, investigates strategies to introduce connectivity in motorbikes by aligning with cybersecurity laws with already existing or in-development technology. The research aims to bridge the existing gap in legislative coverage and propose measures to fortify the cybersecurity of 2-wheelers, ensuring a safer user experience. Connectivity services for 2-wheelers are currently at an early stage. The preferred implementation approach involves employing cloud services that are already in use for passenger cars. This method guarantees compliance to the law in terms of security for back-end systems. Accessing cloud services requires establishing a connection between motorcycle and the cloud using 3G/4G/5G technology or through smartphone tethering connected via Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. A critical analysis of cybersecurity laws, specifically UNECE R155 and R156, alongside the ISO/SAE 21434 norm, emphasizes the need to extend these regulations to cover two-wheelers. The adaptation of these regulations has significant implications for the In-Vehicle Network (IVN) of two-wheelers, differing from that of passenger cars in complexity, ECU count, and configuration. By deriving essential requirements from the regulations and conducting a comprehensive literature review, the fundamental demands for a cyber-secure IVN are established. The research identifies existing hardware solutions in the market and in-development that can be employed to meet these cybersecurity demands on a motorbike's IVN, focusing on the secure gateway and the Integrated Connectivity Cluster (ICC). Each solution brings unique features suitable for different market segments, changing the IVN of 2-wheelers. These changes were investigated with a secure connected architecture concept per segment. In conclusion, the future trajectory of two-wheelers towards enhanced connectivity will require the implementation of cybersecurity measures through additional hardware that will change the IVN Architecture making it more complex. Further research involves design and experimental implementation to validate and refine these proposed concepts and the pursuing of a cybersecurity by design methodology.

Relators: Claudio Ettore Casetti, Ezio Spessa
Academic year: 2023/24
Publication type: Electronic
Number of Pages: 96
Additional Information: Tesi secretata. Fulltext non presente
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Automotive Engineering (Ingegneria Dell'Autoveicolo)
Classe di laurea: New organization > Master science > LM-33 - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Aziende collaboratrici: Robert Bosch Gmbh Branch in Italy
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/30439
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