polito.it
Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Productive projects for building peace in Colombia

Sarmiento Barbosa, Juliana

Productive projects for building peace in Colombia.

Rel. Matteo Robiglio, Elena Montacchini. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Per Il Progetto Sostenibile, 2017

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION

THE REGION OF LATIN AMERICA

Due to the uncertainty of political changes, economic instability, social volatility and environmental needs, the challenges toward an intervention on the Latin American context regarding the next decades targets a sustainable and appropriate approach that is referred to the limits, potential and possibilities of the region. The generic sustainable speech rationally aims and prioritizes the globally favorable long-term solutions over short-term individual gains, looks toward a redefinition of quality of life and questions values that are often culturally determined, that are why definitions of sustainability remain open to interpretation on the unique speech that Latin America has.

Latin America and the Caribbean is made up of 41 very diverse countries, some middle-income countries such as Mexico and Chile, and less developed countries such as Haiti; Small island states to vast territories such as Brazil and Argentina. In this context, the main challenges for sustainable development vary, but there are important points in common. Despite favorable economic development, 31% of the region's population lives in poverty. Income disparities in Latin America are greater than in any other part of the world, expressing themselves in access and quality of health, education and basic services such as electricity and drinking water.

The region's ecosystems are of global importance, including five of the ten most biodiverse countries on the planet (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Peru), as well as the most biologically diverse area in the world: the eastern slope of The Andes. However, this wealth is in serious danger, as these five countries are also among the group of 15 states whose fauna is most endangered. The region is also rich in cultural and linguistic diversity: over 650 indigenous peoples speak more than 600 languages. This diversity is a source of creativity, growth and human development, but can also lead to enormous social tensions, exclusion and discrimination. The problems of global climate change and threats to biodiversity have been greatly aggravated by the lack of protection of tropical forests. This makes the region even more vulnerable to extreme weather events such as cyclones, floods and droughts, especially the small islands in the Caribbean, which are even more threatened by sea level rise.  

The countries of Latin America and the Caribbean are going through a historic moment, with socioeconomic, political stability and international leadership. In the region there are also consensus and shared points, despite the diversity of looks and emphasis. One of them is fundamental: the region understands that the agenda for tomorrow's sustainable development implies a paradigm shift, structural change that places equality and environmental sustainability at the center. And is promoted by that development with a single, universal, irreversible agenda of sustainable with equality. The regional agenda propose to grow with less structural heterogeneity and more productive development, and equalize by empowering human capacities and mobilizing energies from the state.

The proposal also includes remedying the tremendous spatial disparities through more integrated societies around productive dynamics, with positive social and territorial synergies; the support of people by improving labor markets, transfers and the management of public policies. It is also included the protection of the environment, in solidarity with the future generations, which will live in a more uncertain scenario, the result of climate change and a greater shortage of natural resources. In short, it is aim to grow to equal and equal to grow. On the horizon long-term strategic vision, equality, economic growth and environmental sustainability have to build a unique speech.

This paper is done as a need of reflection on one of the most relevant issues of Latin America: The future of the Colombian internal armed conflict within the framework of the transformation of the territory and the strategies for a sustainable development. As it is said, it is necessary to understand not only the regional scale aims, but also study the local events that require a specific analysis. The sustainable approach of this problem is intended to be argued through an Architectural and Territorial review.

Addressing sustainability into this context also requires the formulation of the proper approach to each country, being mandatory to consider the exceptions and singularities of the continent in order to develop a complete strategy for each part that follows the intentions of the regional discourse. The diverse cases demand on the sustainable aim a flexible and personalized path so the internal decisions and priorities can be solved a reach, not only the regional claim, but also the international goals, including Latin America as an important as an integral part of the engine of growth and innovation of the global economy.

Sustainability is not an academic pursuit or a professional activity; it is a way of life affecting everything an individual does. Therefore the approach that sustainable architecture does, puts into practice and encourage a sustainable way of life: design and built to contribute positively to the sustainability agenda, achieve economically strong, socially inclusive, stable communities while minimizing the impact on the environment associated with their construction, their life in use and at the end of their life, persuing a small ecological footprint, a positive and appropriate contribution to the social environment, addressing people's practical needs while enhancing their surrounding environment, psychological and physical well-being.

The concept of sustainability is a product of perceiving a world with limited resources and waste absorption capacity, where each action implies future consequences. This leads to conceive the construction of a building as an act that does not begin with the arrival of the material to the workplace and does not end with the entrance of the users. Build is a close cycle that includes from the fabrication of the material up to its reuse and do not accept the concept of residue: the maintenance and the disassembly are also project. The greatest enemy of sustainability is the ecological aesthetic, conservationist, nostalgic of a rural past, of magic reasons, toward a situation in which everything that is not applicable and easily to transmit does not represent a solution. The use must find cracks in architecture; the form must be build attentive to changes. The meaning lies on those overlaps and contiguity that the project is required to allow by using soft strategies of composition.

Relatori: Matteo Robiglio, Elena Montacchini
Tipo di pubblicazione: A stampa
Soggetti: G Geografia, Antropologia e Luoghi geografici > GD Estero
G Geografia, Antropologia e Luoghi geografici > GI Tradizioni popolari
SS Scienze Sociali ed economiche > SSF Scienze sociali
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Per Il Progetto Sostenibile
Classe di laurea: NON SPECIFICATO
Aziende collaboratrici: NON SPECIFICATO
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/6319
Capitoli:

The region of Latin America

1. What about Colombia?

1.1 Political Project: What has been happening in Colombia?

1.2 The peace agreement with FARC

1.3 Social Project: The profile of a guerilla

1.4 Economic Project: Back to the legal economy

2. Architecture of transition

2.1 The Temporary Normalization Zone: 'Mesetas' case study

3. Cocoa as a productive project

3.1 The product

3.2 Spatial features for a cocoa production

3.3 Potential use

3.4 Cocoa in the territory of Meta

4. A possible scenario

5. Bibliography

Bibliografia:

1. Aravena Alejandro, lacobell Andrés (2016) Elemental: Manual de vivienda incremental y diseño partecipativo (Incre¬mental housing and partecipatory design), Hatie Cantz, Ostflidem.

2. Baldo Gian Luca (2008). Analisi del ciclo di vita Ica: Gli strumenti per la progettazione sostenibile di materiali, prodotti e processi, Edizioni Ambente, Milan.

3. Brophy Vivienne, Lewis Owen (2011 ) A green vitruvius: Principles and practice of sustainable architectural, Earthscan, London; Washington.

4. Emanuele Sacco ' Separazione della buccia dal cotiledone nella lavorazione del cacao" Graduation thesis on Chimical Engineering, tutor Giancarlo Salditi, Politecnico di Torino, 2001.

5. Gausa, Manuel (2001 ). Diccionario Metápolis de la arquitectura avanzada, ACTAR, Barcelona.

6. Gonzalo Roberto, Reiner Vallentin (2014). Planning and design of energy-efficient buildings, Detail, München.

7. Forty, Adrian (2000). Words and buildings: a vocabulary of modern architecture, Thames & Hudson, London.

8. Lee, Sang (2011 ) Aesthetic of sustainable architecture, OIO Publishers, Rotterdam.

9. Ludger Eltrop, Telsnig Thomas (2013) Energy and sun: sustainable energy solutions for future megacities, Ulrich Hahl editors, Berlin.

10. Muñoz, Monica "La canapa in edilizia: uso della canapa nei componenti edilizi per lo sviluppo di un modulo abitativo rurale nel dipartimento del Cauca-Colombia" Graduation thesis on Architecture for the Sustainable design, tutor Elena Piera Montacchini, Politecnico di Torino (2017).

11. Nasir El Bassam, Preben Maegaard, Marcia Lawton Schlichting. Distributed renewable energies for off-grid communities: strategies and technologies toward achieving sustainability in energy generation and supply. Kidligton, Elsevier, 2013.

12. Noref Norwegian peacebuilding resource center (2016) Innovations in the Colombian peace process report By Kristian Herbolzheimer.

13. Observatorio de drogas de Colombia. Reporte de droga de Colombia 2016.

14. Richtie Adam, Randall Thomas (2009) Sustainable urban design: an environmental approach, Taylor J Francis, London; New York.

15. Sassi Paola (2006). Strategies for sustainable architecture, Taylor Francis, Abingdon.

16. United Nations. Desarrollo sostenible en américa latina y el caribe: seguimiento de la agenda de las Naciones Unidas para el desarrollo post-2015 y Río+20

17. Wienke Uwe (2008). Manuale di bioedilizia 4.ed. aggiornata ed ampliacata, Dei, Roma.

WEBGRAPHY

18. El Tiempo (October 25,2007) La posición de Colombia en el contexto político y económico mundial. Taken from blogs.eltiempo.com/politica-internacional—colombia-4atinoamerica-y-el-mundo/2007/10/25/la-posicion-de-colombia-en-ekontexto-politico-y-economico-mundial/

19. Greenpeace.org (August 6,2010) Un plan para un futuro energético renovable y global. Taken from vmw.greenpeace.org/cotornbia/es/Noticias/c3mbio-dimatico-los-paramos-en-peligro/un-plan-para-un-futuro-energetico-renovable-y-global/

20. Stanford University. The Mapping Militants Projed (August 15,2015). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - People's Army. Taken from web.stanford.edu/group/mappingmilitants/cgi-bin/groups/view/89

21. Portafolio (Odober 16,2015) Devaluación pone a Colombia como cuarta economía de América. Taken from www.portafolio.co/economia/finan2as/devaluacion-pone-colombia-cuarta-economia-america-34688

22. Global Risk Insights (December 01,2015) Economics of peace: Colombia lacks post-conflict funding. Taken from www.globalriskinsights.com/2015/12/economics-of-peace-colombia-lacks-post-conflict-funding/

23. Colombia Peace (June 23,2016). Summary of the FARC-Government Ceasefire and Disarmament Accord. Taken from www.colombiapeace.org/2016/06/23/summary-of-the-farc-government-ceasefire-and-disarmament-accord

24. Spanish for social change (June 28,2016). Zonas veredales transitorias de normalización: rural township based temporary normalization zones.

25. El Tiempo (August 24,2016). Línea del tiempo de tos diálogos de paz. Taken from www.eltiempo.com/datos/linea-del-tiempo-de-los-dialogos-de-paz-56584

26. BBC Mundo (August 24,2016). ¿Por qué empezó y qué pasó en la guerra de más de 50 años que desangró a Colombia? Taken from www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-america-latina-371814137ocidssocialflow_facebook

27. El Colombiano (September 04,2016). Lo esencial de tos 6 puntos del acuerdo Gobierno-Farc. Taken from www.elcolombiano.com/colombia/acuerdos-de-gobiernof-farc/lo-esencial-de-los-6-puntos-del-acuerdo-gobierno- farc-BI4912470

28. Colectivo bicicleta (Odober 05,2016) Memoria visual del conflicto armado en Colombia. Taken from www.coledivobicideta.com/2016/05/memoria-visual-dekonflido-en-colombia.html

29. Citiscope (December 09,2016) Post-conflict Colombia looks to its cities. Taken from www.citiscope.org/habitadll/news/2016/12/post-conflid-colombia-looks-its-cities

30. Revista Semana (January 31,2017) El arduo trasteo de las FARC a las zonas veredales. Taken from www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/farc-y-zonas-veredales-icononzo-y-masivos-desplazamientos/513847

31. El Colombiano (March 12,2017) Las FARC se quedarían en las zonas veredales. Taken from www.elcolombiano.com/colombia/paz-y-derechos-humanos/las-farc-se-quedarian-en-las-zonas-veredales- DG6190207

32. ADR Agenda de Desarrollo Rural (March 23,2017). Proyedos productivos por $13 mil millones se adelantarán en Zonas Veredales. Taken from www.adr.gov.co/index.php/sala-de-prensa/noticias/93-proyeaos-produdivos-por-13-mil-millones-se-adelantaran-en-zonas-veredales ; Taken from www.spanishforsocialchange.com/2016/06/zonas-veredales-transitorias-de.html

33. El Espectador (June 10,2017) la arquitectura del posconflicto. Taken from www.elespectador.com/noticias/paz/1a-arquitectura-del-posconflicto-articulo-697731

34. Revista Semana Mujica (June 13,2017). Colombia es un laboratorio de la historia, no lo hagamos fracasar: 'Pepe’. Taken from www.semana.com/nacion/articulo/pepe-mujica-desde-cali-habla-de-la-dejacion-de-armas-de-las-farc/528452

35. ArchDaity (July 5,2017) ¿Cuál será el futuro del urbanismo del posconflicto en Colombia? Taken from www.plataformaarquitectura.cl/cl/874871/cual-sera-el-futuro-del-urbanismo-del-posconlcto-en-colombia

36. Telesur (July 28,2017) Zonas Veredales de las FARC-EP van hasta el 15 de Agosto. Taken from www.telesurtv.net/news/Zonas-veredales-de-FARC-EP-existiran-hasta-el-15-de-agosto-20170728-0064-html

37. CMI (July 31,2017) Zonas veredales se convierten en territorios de capacitación. Taken from www.cmi.com.co/proceso-de-paz-con-las-farc/zonas-veredales-se-convierten-en-temtorios-de-capacitacion/422190/

38. Blu Radio (August 04,2017) 4.500 integrantes de las Fare inician procesos de capacitación este fin de semana. Taken from: www.bluradio.com/nacion/4500-integrantes-de-l3s-farc-inician-procesos-de-capacit3cion-este-fin-de-semana-149240

39. El Espectador (August 21,2017) Zonas veredales: cicatrices del conflict. Takenfromwww.colombia2020.elespectador.com/opinion/zonas-veredales-cicatrices-del-conflicto

40. CNN (August 25,2016) Colombia: 52 years of war, 220,000 dead, now peace. Taken from: www.edition.cnn.com/2016/08/25/americas/colombia-farc-peace-deal-explainer/index.html

41. W Radio (August 27,2017) Las FARC consolidan posición ideológica en primera jornada de su congreso. Taken from www.wradio.com.co/noticias/actualidad/las-farc-consolid3n-posicion-ideologica-en-la-primera-jornada-de-su-congreso/20170827/nota/3561616,aspx

42. Fedecacao (August 23,2017) La capital cacaotera de Colombia celebró el festival del cacao en su tercera edición. Taken from www.fedecacao.com.co/portal/index.php/es/2015-04-23-2Ofl0-33/454-la-capit3kac3Otera-de-colombia-celebro-el- festival-dekacao-en-su-tercera-edicion

43. Seman3 (September 10,2017) Cuatro historias del avance de la deforestación tras la salida de las FARC. Taken from www.sostenibilidad.semana.com/medio-ambiente/articulo/deforest3cion-en-colombi3-tr3s-ta-salida-de-las-farc-de sus-territorios/38598

44. Caracol Radio (September 12,2017) 200 guerrilleros han salido de zonas veredales del suroccidente revela Pacho Chino. Taken from: www.caracol.com.co/emisora/2017/09/12/cali/1505235244_642314.html

45. Notimérica (September 17,2017) Colombia inicia 44 planes de desarrollo en las zonas del conflict. Taken from www.notimerica.com/politica/noticia-colombia-inicia-44-planes-desarrollo-rural-zonas-afectadas-conftic- to-20170917173420.html

46. Resumen Lationamericsno (October 02,2017) Colombia. ¿La Paz Traicionada?... Taken from www.resumenlatino3meric3no.org/2017/10/02/cotombia-l3-paz-traicionada/

47. Fundación Paz y Reconcidiación (October 06,2017) El cese bilateral al fuego con el ELN, un hecho histórico. Taken from www.pares.com.co/columnistas/ekesebilateral-al-fuego-con-el-eln-un-hecho-historico/

48. Pacifista (October 11,2017) Sí a la jEP, No a la JEP, ¿Se viene un nuevo plebiscito? Taken from www.pacifista.co/si-a-la-jep-no-a-la-jep-se-viene-un-nuevo-plebiscito/

49. Caracol Radio (September 18,2017) Unos 140 ex miembros de las Fare salieron de las zonas de capacitación en Antioquia. Taken from www.caracol.com.co/emisora/2017/09/18/medellin/1505732349_359189.html

50. Infobae (October 27,2017) Contrario a las cifras del gobierno colombiano, el número de disidentes de las FARC estaría entre tos 1.000 a 1.500. Taken from www.infobae.com/america/cotombia/2017/10/27/contrario-a-las-cifras-del-gobiemo-colombiano-el-numero-de-disidentes-de-las-farc-estaria-entre-los-1-000-a-1-500/

51. Conflicto armado y Paramilitarismo en Colombia. Taken from www.derechos.org/nizkor/colombia/ya/conf3rml.htm

52. Alto Comicionado para la paz. El acuerdo final para la paz. Taken from www.altocomisionadoparalapaz.gov.co/herramientas/Documents/Nuevo_enterese_version_6_Sep_f1n3l_web.pdf

53. Alto Comicionado para la paz. Summary of Colombia's agreement to end conflict and build paece. Taken from www.altocomisionadoparalapaz.gov.co/herramientas/Documents/5ummary-of-coloinbias-pMce-agreement.pdf

54. UNESCO Desafíos para la sostenibilidad de América y el Caribe. Taken from www.unesco.org/new/es/santiago/education/education-for-sustainable-development/challenges-for-sustainability-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean

55. Semana. El AND de las FARC. Taken from www.especiales.semana.com/farc-adn/index.html

56. International Crisis Group. Colombia's Armed Groups Battle for the Spoils of Peace Latin America Report N°63,19 October 2017. Taken from www.crisisgroup.org/latin-america-caribbean/andes/colombia/63-colombias-armed-groups-battle-spoils-peace

57. Finagro. El Momento del agro. Taken form www.finagro.com.co/noticias/el-momento-del-agro

58. Programa Nacional Integral de Sustitución de Cultivos llícitos(PNIS). http://especiales.presidencia.gov.co/Documents/20170503-sustitucion-cultivos/programa-sustitucion-cultivos-ilicitos.html

59. La ACR fortalece su institucionalidad y pasa a ser la Agencia para la Reincorporación y la Normalización (ARN). http://www.reintegracion.gov.co/es/sala-de-prensa/noticias/Paginas/2017/05/C0MUNICAD0-0FICIAL-ACR-pasa-a-ser-ARN.aspx

VIDEOGRAPHY

60. Movie 'Retratos en un mar de mentiras'. Carlos Gaviria, 90 min (Colombia, 2010)

61. Movie 'La Sirga'. William Vega, 92 min (Colombia, 2012)

62. DW Videos Conversaciones con Pepe Mujica. Taken from www.facebook.com/dw.espanol/videos/1659111760789573/?hc_ref=ARSQMsWnkGe2AoXJcWQEzY89SptlzLGEr39UhfLsUq3WRCW4U-jK6-Kvr|Vghi1 RD2Q

63. NC Noticias. Entrevista a José "Pepe" Mujica, expresidente de Uruguay, del componente internacional de verificación. Taken from www.facebook.com/ncprensa/videos/1707394709556920/7h c_ref=ARTRx0Np9UCVNB967lmAlrMkmthJZsuuZ0pADRLz9gNdaF4O-CmdNd3GZ-PVPYoYjuL0&pnref=story

64. Canal Institucional (January 19,2016) Diana Uribe habla sobre procesos de paz históricos.

65. Preview DWVideos Documental "El silencio de los fusiles" Natalia Orozco. Taken from www.facebook.com/dw.espanol/videos/1625340200833396/?hc_ref=ARQZBLJ9xU3BW4m-FEJOMAyac4x- Q_5azEq65hDsoCmJH2_5Nmbqv77RUx7Zfn71¡30

66. Arquitectura con tierra en Colombia / una visión sostenible de la construcción. Taken from www.youtube.com/watch7rakmfdkgtrps

67. Permacultura - fabricar y construir con adobe. Taken from www.youtube.com/watch?v=ju76jazxa7¡

68. Conferencia Salvador Rueda - Urbanismo eco sistémico. Taken from www.vimeo.com/! 56684601

69. Sinfonía de una Paz Inconclusa. Taken from www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUJSIBmM1iw

Modifica (riservato agli operatori) Modifica (riservato agli operatori)