Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Sound and light in school environments : development of a preliminary parametric design approach

Gianmarco Paglierani

Sound and light in school environments : development of a preliminary parametric design approach.

Rel. Arianna Astolfi, Anna Pellegrino, Michela Turrin, Giuseppina Emma Puglisi, Louena Shtrepi, Luigi Giovannini. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città, 2017


The proposal is to consider a model of an existing classroom of a primary school in Turin, Scuola Elementare Leonardo Fontana (Via Michele Buniva, 19, 10124 Torino). It is part of an old school building of the eighteenth century, characterised by high vaulted ceilings and big volumes, with reflective surfaces at the boundaries. Classroom acoustic measurements have been performed in this classroom by the staff of the Department of Energy of the Politecnico di Torino and used to administer speech intelligibility tests in auralized environment. Using the geometry of the room and the optimal reverberation time obtained according to the DIN standard as inputs for the optimizing algorithm will be useful to obtain the best solution that guarantee the highest standards in terms of Reverberation Time (RT), Definition (D50), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and that takes into account the cost of acoustic treatment. This will be achieved by varying the ceiling and walls sound absorption and scattering values, location and extension. Hence, the acoustic optimization starts by the data obtained by the study of the staff of the Department of Energy and goes on in the classroom design through the use of Grasshopper to calculate the best configuration in terms of treatment of the ceiling surfaces and possibly the walls. In parallel to this, it will be used the plug-in Pachyderm to obtain the results of acoustic analysis of various configurations. Lighting conditions in classrooms are a key feature for students performance and wellbeing. The lighting optimization will take into account both daylight availability and glare phenomena. The study will start from the analysis of the classroom features with respect to daylight and sunlight penetration. In particular, the present openings and shading devices will be assessed with respect to the classroom dimension, proportion and to the external context. The aim of the research is to obtain the greatest comfort, maximising the daylight quantity while preserving the quality of the luminous environment in terms of daylight distribution and glare prevention. The study will be carried out through a Climate Based Daylight Modelling approach, which is based upon a detailed analysis of the interaction between the internal space, the external context, the daylighting condition of the specific site and the behaviour of the average users on an annual base. To do so, the most relevant parameters that we'll be taken into account are: Daylight Autonomy, Continuous Daylight Autonomy, Maximum Daylight Autonomy, spatial Daylight Autonomy, Useful Daylight Illuminances and Unified Glare Rating. Going deeper in detail, the study starts with a set of input data provided to the software Grasshopper. A possible set of input might be: environment geometry and material's optical properties, an index of the window surface of the ambient (defined as the window-to-wall ratio and the glazing visual transmittance), an index of the shading devices, considering also the orientation of the windows with respect to sunlight. Not being able to intervene with external shields the variable that should be considered in the algorithm definition is the reflection factor of the curtains. While the target will be to get maximum comfort satisfying the indexes of the analysis CBDM. Afterwards, the lighting analysis will be performed using the plug-in DIVA of the software Rhinoceros. The consequent output will be the values of the previously defined parameters, with respect to classroom configuration. Through a comparison of these results, the optimal set, in terms of lighting comfort, could be achieved. The aim of the research is to carry out simultaneously a lighting and acoustic optimization, being focused on the best trade-off of these two studies, which are influenced by a similar set of parameters. In conclusion, the solution is to define a configuration able to satisfy the requirements imposed on both the studies I am interested in attending the Grasshopper software courses, in order to better understand the potentiality and capabilities of the program. This research would also be extremely useful for my learning outcome because working on a realistic case study would allow me to enhance both my theoretical and practical background.

Relators: Arianna Astolfi, Anna Pellegrino, Michela Turrin, Giuseppina Emma Puglisi, Louena Shtrepi, Luigi Giovannini
Publication type: Printed
Subjects: S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SH Fisica tecnica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città
Classe di laurea: New organization > Master science > LM-04 - ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING
Aziende collaboratrici: UNSPECIFIED
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/6165





1 Introduction

1.1 Research objectives

1.2 Structure of the thesis

1.3 Case study

2 Acoustic

2.2 Parameters target

2.2.1 Reverberation Time

2.2.2 Clarity

2.1.3 Definition

2.2.4 Early Decay Time

2.2.5 Signal-To-Noise Ratio

2.2.6 Speech Transmission Index

2.2.7 Equivalent Noise Level

2.3 The effects of noise on learning

2.3.1 Consequences of a high vocal effort

2.4 Acoustics requirements

2.5 Design solutions to control noise

2.5.1 Control of external noise levels

2.5.2 Control of internal noise levels

2.5.3 Acoustics bridges and installations

2.6 Design solutions to control reverberation

2.6.1 Solutions and materials for sound absorption

2.7 Classroom B current situation

2.7.1 Acoustics simulations process

2.7.2 Digital model of the real classroom B

2.7.3 Surfaces' properties and analysis settings

2.7.4 Model calibration

2.8 Acoustic design

2.8.1 Parametric model and analysis specifications

2.8.2 Preliminary acoustic design study The diffusing panel on the lower front wall The last raw of seats Other consfigurations with particular ceilings

2.9 Acoustic multi-objective optimization

2.9.1 Simulation setup

2.9.2 Types of ceilings

2.1 0 Multi-objective optimization results

2.10.1 Ceiling type n° 1 optimization Best acoustic treatment obtained

2.10.2 Ceiling type n° 2 optimization Best acoustic treatment obtained

2.10.3 Final multi-objective optimization Best acoustic treatment obtained

2.11 Conclusion

3 Lighting

3.1 Lighting Design

3.1.1 Task/Activity Lighting

3.1.2 Lighting for Visual Amenity

3.1.3 Lighting and Architectural Integration

3.1.4 Lighting and Energy Efficiency

3.1.5 Lighting Maintenance

3.1.6 Lighting Costs

3.2 Lighting Design Guidance

3.2.1 UNI EN 12464

3.2.2 UNI 10840

3.3 Design Parameters of Natural Lighting

3.3.1 Daylight Factor (FLDm)

3.3.2 Climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM)

3.4 Case studies current situation

3.4.1 Classroom B 3D Model Traditional parameters analysis - DF. Dynamic parameters analysis - CBDM Dynamic parameters analysis - Glare

3.4.2 Classroom Y. 3D Model Traditional parameters analysis - DF. Dynamic parameters analysis - CBDM Dynamic parameters analysis - Glare

3.5 Case studies comparison

3.6 Lighting design

3.6.1 Classroom Y study model Test n° 1 Test n° 2 Test n° 3

3.7 Conclusion

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C




Astolfi A., Bottalico R, Bronuzzi F., "Indagini oggettive e soggettive sull'influenza del rumore e della riverberazione sullo sforzo vocale di insegnanti di scuola primaria". In: isl. Igiene & sicurezza del lavoro. I corsi (2014);

Astolfi A., Corrado V., Grig inis A., "Comparison between measured and calculated parameters for the acoustical characterization of small classrooms", Applied Acoustics (2008);

Astolfi A., Pellery F., "Subjective and objective assessment of acoustical and overall environmental quality in secondary school classrooms", JASA (2008);

Choi Y., "Effects of periodic type diffusers on classroom acoustics", Applied acoustics 74 (2013);

Choi Y., "Experimental investigation of the combination of absorptive and diffusive treatments in classrooms" (2015);

Barron M. "Auditorium acoustics and architectural design", 2nd ed. London: E &FN Spon (2009);

Bradley JS, "Speech intelligibility studies in classrooms", J Acoust Soc Am (1 986); Bradley JS, "Reich R, Norcross SG. On the combined effects of signal-to-noise ratio and room acoustics on speech intelligibility". J Acoust Soc Am (1 999);

Bradley JS, Sato H, Picard M. "On the importance of early reflections for speech in rooms", J. Acoust. (2003);

Cherry E. C., "Some experiments on the recognition of speech with one and with two ears". Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (1 953);

British standard 8233:1999, "Sound insulation and noise reduction for buildings - code of practice" (1999);

Commins D., "Survey of UK voice clinics 2001/2 (2002)". Voice Care Network UK (2002);

Department for Education and Skills, Building Bulletin 93, "Acoustic Design of Scho¬ol", London: Stationery Office (2003);

Hygge S., Evans G.W. and Bullinger M., "The Munich Airport noise study: Cognitive effects on children from before to after the changeover of airports", Proceeding of internoise '96 (1996);

Kidd, G., Mason, C. R., Richards, V. M., Gallun, F. J., and Durlach, "Informational masking in Auditory Perception of Sound Sources" N. I. (2008);

Kob M., Behlery G., Kamprolfz A., Goldschmidtx O., Neuschaefer-Rube C., "Experimental investigations of the influence of room acoustics on teachers' voice", Acoust. Sci. & Tech. (2008);

Leijska V., "Occupational voice disorders in teachers", Pracovini Lekarstvi 1 9 (1 967); Lindsey R. B., "Wheel of acoustics" in J. Acoust. (1964);

Loreti L., Barbaresi L., D'Orazio D., Garai M., "La percezione del parlato all'interno dell'aula magna della facoltà di ingegneria di Ravenna: caratterizzazione ed interventi migliorativi", AIA (2016);

Oliaro P, "Rumore degli impianti tecnologici", in Manuale di acustica applicata (2007);

Pamphlet WHO, Regional Office for Europe, n.38, Noise in Schools (2001);

Bolognesi F., "Prevision of optimal speech intelligibility in primary school classrooms through simulation of optimal acoustic absorption and diffusion conditions", Mater Thesis, Politecnico di Torino (2016);

Department for Education and Employement, Building Bulletin 90, "Lighting design for schools", London: Stationery Office (2014);

Pellegrino Anna, Cammarano Silvia, Savio Valeria, Daylighting for Green Schools:

"A Resource for Indoor Quality and Energy Efficiency in Educational Environments" (2015).

Modify record (reserved for operators) Modify record (reserved for operators)