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Sound and light in school environments : development of a preliminary parametric design approach

Paglierani, Gianmarco

Sound and light in school environments : development of a preliminary parametric design approach.

Rel. Arianna Astolfi, Anna Pellegrino, Michela Turrin, Giuseppina Emma Puglisi, Louena Shtrepi, Luigi Giovannini. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città, 2017

Abstract:

The proposal is to consider a model of an existing classroom of a primary school in Turin, Scuola Elementare Leonardo Fontana (Via Michele Buniva, 19, 10124 Torino). It is part of an old school building of the eighteenth century, characterised by high vaulted ceilings and big volumes, with reflective surfaces at the boundaries. Classroom acoustic measurements have been performed in this classroom by the staff of the Department of Energy of the Politecnico di Torino and used to administer speech intelligibility tests in auralized environment. Using the geometry of the room and the optimal reverberation time obtained according to the DIN standard as inputs for the optimizing algorithm will be useful to obtain the best solution that guarantee the highest standards in terms of Reverberation Time (RT), Definition (D50), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and that takes into account the cost of acoustic treatment. This will be achieved by varying the ceiling and walls sound absorption and scattering values, location and extension. Hence, the acoustic optimization starts by the data obtained by the study of the staff of the Department of Energy and goes on in the classroom design through the use of Grasshopper to calculate the best configuration in terms of treatment of the ceiling surfaces and possibly the walls. In parallel to this, it will be used the plug-in Pachyderm to obtain the results of acoustic analysis of various configurations. Lighting conditions in classrooms are a key feature for students performance and wellbeing. The lighting optimization will take into account both daylight availability and glare phenomena. The study will start from the analysis of the classroom features with respect to daylight and sunlight penetration. In particular, the present openings and shading devices will be assessed with respect to the classroom dimension, proportion and to the external context. The aim of the research is to obtain the greatest comfort, maximising the daylight quantity while preserving the quality of the luminous environment in terms of daylight distribution and glare prevention. The study will be carried out through a Climate Based Daylight Modelling approach, which is based upon a detailed analysis of the interaction between the internal space, the external context, the daylighting condition of the specific site and the behaviour of the average users on an annual base. To do so, the most relevant parameters that we'll be taken into account are: Daylight Autonomy, Continuous Daylight Autonomy, Maximum Daylight Autonomy, spatial Daylight Autonomy, Useful Daylight Illuminances and Unified Glare Rating. Going deeper in detail, the study starts with a set of input data provided to the software Grasshopper. A possible set of input might be: environment geometry and material's optical properties, an index of the window surface of the ambient (defined as the window-to-wall ratio and the glazing visual transmittance), an index of the shading devices, considering also the orientation of the windows with respect to sunlight. Not being able to intervene with external shields the variable that should be considered in the algorithm definition is the reflection factor of the curtains. While the target will be to get maximum comfort satisfying the indexes of the analysis CBDM. Afterwards, the lighting analysis will be performed using the plug-in DIVA of the software Rhinoceros. The consequent output will be the values of the previously defined parameters, with respect to classroom configuration. Through a comparison of these results, the optimal set, in terms of lighting comfort, could be achieved. The aim of the research is to carry out simultaneously a lighting and acoustic optimization, being focused on the best trade-off of these two studies, which are influenced by a similar set of parameters. In conclusion, the solution is to define a configuration able to satisfy the requirements imposed on both the studies I am interested in attending the Grasshopper software courses, in order to better understand the potentiality and capabilities of the program. This research would also be extremely useful for my learning outcome because working on a realistic case study would allow me to enhance both my theoretical and practical background.

Relatori: Arianna Astolfi, Anna Pellegrino, Michela Turrin, Giuseppina Emma Puglisi, Louena Shtrepi, Luigi Giovannini
Tipo di pubblicazione: A stampa
Soggetti: S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SH Fisica tecnica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città
Classe di laurea: Nuovo ordinamento > Laurea magistrale > LM-04 - ARCHITETTURA E INGEGNERIA EDILE-ARCHITETTURA
Aziende collaboratrici: NON SPECIFICATO
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/6165
Capitoli:

Preface

Acknowledgments

Abstarct

Contents

1 Introduction

1.1 Research objectives

1.2 Structure of the thesis

1.3 Case study

2 Acoustic

2.2 Parameters target

2.2.1 Reverberation Time

2.2.2 Clarity

2.1.3 Definition

2.2.4 Early Decay Time

2.2.5 Signal-To-Noise Ratio

2.2.6 Speech Transmission Index

2.2.7 Equivalent Noise Level

2.3 The effects of noise on learning

2.3.1 Consequences of a high vocal effort

2.4 Acoustics requirements

2.5 Design solutions to control noise

2.5.1 Control of external noise levels

2.5.2 Control of internal noise levels

2.5.3 Acoustics bridges and installations

2.6 Design solutions to control reverberation

2.6.1 Solutions and materials for sound absorption

2.7 Classroom B current situation

2.7.1 Acoustics simulations process

2.7.2 Digital model of the real classroom B

2.7.3 Surfaces' properties and analysis settings

2.7.4 Model calibration

2.8 Acoustic design

2.8.1 Parametric model and analysis specifications

2.8.2 Preliminary acoustic design study

2.8.2.1 The diffusing panel on the lower front wall

2.8.2.2 The last raw of seats

2.8.2.3 Other consfigurations with particular ceilings

2.9 Acoustic multi-objective optimization

2.9.1 Simulation setup

2.9.2 Types of ceilings

2.1 0 Multi-objective optimization results

2.10.1 Ceiling type n° 1 optimization

2.10.1.1 Best acoustic treatment obtained

2.10.2 Ceiling type n° 2 optimization

2.10.2.1 Best acoustic treatment obtained

2.10.3 Final multi-objective optimization

2.10.3.1 Best acoustic treatment obtained

2.11 Conclusion

3 Lighting

3.1 Lighting Design

3.1.1 Task/Activity Lighting

3.1.2 Lighting for Visual Amenity

3.1.3 Lighting and Architectural Integration

3.1.4 Lighting and Energy Efficiency

3.1.5 Lighting Maintenance

3.1.6 Lighting Costs

3.2 Lighting Design Guidance

3.2.1 UNI EN 12464

3.2.2 UNI 10840

3.3 Design Parameters of Natural Lighting

3.3.1 Daylight Factor (FLDm)

3.3.2 Climate-based daylight modelling (CBDM)

3.4 Case studies current situation

3.4.1 Classroom B

3.4.1.1 3D Model

3.4.1.2 Traditional parameters analysis - DF.

3.4.1.3 Dynamic parameters analysis - CBDM

3.4.1.4 Dynamic parameters analysis - Glare

3.4.2 Classroom Y.

3.4.2.1 3D Model

3.4.2.2 Traditional parameters analysis - DF.

3.4.2.3 Dynamic parameters analysis - CBDM

3.4.2.4 Dynamic parameters analysis - Glare

3.5 Case studies comparison

3.6 Lighting design

3.6.1 Classroom Y study model

3.6.1.1 Test n° 1

3.6.1.2 Test n° 2

3.6.1.3 Test n° 3

3.7 Conclusion

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Bibliography

Bibliografia:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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