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Towards a low carbon future : users' lifestyle supporting building performances : occupants behavior impact on zero emission buildings in mediterranean and nordic climate

Boggio, Adele

Towards a low carbon future : users' lifestyle supporting building performances : occupants behavior impact on zero emission buildings in mediterranean and nordic climate.

Rel. Stefano Paolo Corgnati, Marta Bottero, Cristina Becchio, Per Heiselberg. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città, 2017

Abstract:

ABSTRACT

Nowadays building sector has become an important target for energy and carbon emissions reduction, as it has a significant impact on the environment contributing to the 40% of the total energy consumption and the 36% of total C02 emissions.

The recast of the EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive) has introduced the concept of nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB) as building with very high-energy performances able to cover the residual energy demand with renewable energy sources on site or nearby the building. According to EPBD recast, all new buildings have to be nearly zero energy by the end of 2020. New European targets, as previously introduced, shift the focus on C02 emissions reduction, setting reduction goals for 2050. The European strategy called "Roadmap for moving to a competitive low carbon economy in 2050" is an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-27 by at least 80% in 2050 vis-à-vis emissions in 1990 and in particular to reduce by the 90% emissions proceeding from the building sector. Thus, the concept of Zero Carbon Building, as a building with a low amount of carbon emissions, entered in the standards of some European countries but it has not been supported by the whole community.

With the aim of the integration of the two high efficiency building models, the concept of Zero Energy and Emission building (ZEEB) rise up, as a building where minimum energy performance is in line with national requirements and a great reduction of carbon emissions related to all final uses is expected.

Moreover, in order to impose limits on energy and emissions it is fundamental to precisely quantify final buildings energy consumption and as a consequence C02 emissions. These two are strictly related to variables that impact on final building's performances, such as the role of occupant behavior, that is the sum of possible interactions between users and the building in which they live. Improving building performances is not sufficient to manage energy consumption but also in the case of high efficiency buildings users' lifestyle continue to have an important impact on final performances.

To prove it two case study buildings are selected, one in Italy and the other in Denmark; different retrofit solutions are proposed applying ZEEB definition and the best one selected through cost optimal methodology. The impact of occupant behavior is assessed on the resulting high performing building and in the case of the Italian case study, an economic evaluation of the possible building's configurations including user lifestyle in it is carried out. Costs and benefits are selected, quantified and monetized and the Cost-Benefit Analysis applied in order to select the best alternative.

Relatori: Stefano Paolo Corgnati, Marta Bottero, Cristina Becchio, Per Heiselberg
Tipo di pubblicazione: A stampa
Soggetti: A Architettura > AP Rilievo architettonico
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SH Fisica tecnica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città
Classe di laurea: Nuovo ordinamento > Laurea magistrale > LM-04 - ARCHITETTURA E INGEGNERIA EDILE-ARCHITETTURA
Aziende collaboratrici: NON SPECIFICATO
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/6141
Capitoli:

0 Introduction

0.1 Purpose and methodology

0.2 Structure of the thesis

1 ANALYSIS BACKGROUND Regulatory framework

1.1 European standard background

1.2 Nearly Zero Energy Building

1.3 Zero Carbon Building

1.4 Italian standards

1.5 Danish standards

2 Cost Optimal methodology

2.1 Calculation methodology

2.2 Global cost graph

2.3 Cost Optimal methodology applied to case studies

3 ZEEB - Zero Energy and Emission Building

4 User behavior impact on building energy performances

4.1 User behavior in energy use calculation

4.2 Background analysis: the Italian average scenario about energy consumption

4.3 The definition of different user profiles

5 Cost-Benefit Analysis

5.1 Cost-Benefit analysis overview

5.2 Costs and benefits in the case study building's refurbishment

6 THE ITALIAN CASE STUDY The Reference Building

6.1 The Reference Building state of art

6.2 The Reference Building modelling in DesignBuilder

6.3 The Reference Building energy performances

7 Energy efficiency measures

7.1 Acting on the envelope

7.2 Acting on the systems

7.3 Acting on electric appliances and lighting

7.4 Producing energy on-site: RES

7.5 Packages of retrofit measures

7.6 Packages evaluation under ZEEB definition

8 Cost-Optimal Analysis

8.1 Investment cost

8.2 Maintenance cost

8.3 Energy cost

8.4 Environmental cost

8.5 Replacement cost

8.6 Residual value

8.7 Global cost

8.8 Cost Optimal analysis

8.9 Sensitivity analysis

9 Designing users profiles in ZEEBs

9.1 Variables analyzed: energy use for electric appliances and lighting

9.2 Variables analyzed: heating and cooling operation

9.3 Variables analyzed: ventilation

9.4 Variables analyzed: hot water consumption

9.5 Users profiles summary

9.6 Additional analysis

10 The impact of occupants' behavior in ZEEBs

10.1Average consumer

10.2 Low consumer

10.3 High consumer

10.4 Young families lifestyle

10.5 Old families lifestyle

10.6 Summary and main conclusions

11 Cost-Benefit Analysis: the case study

11.1 The evaluation of retrofit measures considering the impact of users' behavior

11.2 The evaluation of the best building's configuration considering the retrofit project and the impact of user behavior

12 THE DANISH CASE STUDY The Reference Building

12.1 The Reference Building state of art 419

12.2 The Reference Building modelling in DesignBuilder

12.3 The Reference Building energy performances

13 Building's energy retrofit

13.1 The new retrofit project

13.2 Acting on the envelope

13.3 Acting on the systems

13.4 Acting on lighting

13.5 Producing energy on site: Renewable Energy Sources

13.6 Packages of retrofit measures

13.7 Packages evaluation under ZEEB definition

14 The characterization of occupant's habits in residential buildings in Denmark

14.1 Danish average lifestyle characterization

14.2 The definition of different user profiles

15 The impact of users behavior in Danish case study

15.1 Variables analyzed

15.2 DesignBuilder simulations results

15.3 Summary and main conclusions

16 Conclusions

16.1 Italian results

16.2 Danish results

16.3 Results comparison

References

Annex

A1 Calculation of lighting normalized power density for Italy

A2 Packages in detail

A3 Calculation of lighting normalized power density for Denmark

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