Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Immersive reality for operating rooms design : a BIM implementation : IIR - Immersive Interactive Reality for Healthcare Environments

Mattia Palumbo

Immersive reality for operating rooms design : a BIM implementation : IIR - Immersive Interactive Reality for Healthcare Environments.

Rel. Riccardo Pollo, Ingrid Paoletti. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Per Il Progetto Sostenibile, 2017



With rapid technological advances taking place in the AECfields, virtual prototyping is increasingly being used during the design review process of specialized building types such as healthcare facilities. The physical environment significantly impacts the overall results of the design process of a Healthcare facilities, and the biggest problem is the communication during the design phase to avoid design mistakes before the construction of the facilities. The primary stakeholders of the Healthcare fields must be involved during the design phase to improve and give feedback to correct the results, but not many actors in the healthcare fields have the experience and the knowledge to read plans, sections and blueprints of a project.

The problem of communication is dramatic, nowadays 3D models and renderings visualization helps but is not still enough because they cannot truly give the true sense of space. Nowadays thanks to the Digital Revolution and the developing technologies we are able to implement new ways to communicate, such as Virtual and Immersive prototyping, in order to minimize the communication gap between the Healthcare Stakeholders and other Stakeholders that are included during the design phase, like AEC actors(Engineers, Architects, Designers).

An example of an application of this technology can be the sterilization area, which is very complex to design due to his paths and spaces. Other examples are the finishing, such as colors and lighting, the dimensions of the spaces, wasted spaces in Healthcare facilities conduct to a huge loss of money.

In order to avoid that new ways of design approach are available, interactive virtual prototyping provides opportunities for embedding a better way to represents the project in a complete way closing the gap of communication between the different stakeholders. This provides a new way to review project concepts and enable end-users to actually experience design alternatives during design reviews, also reducing the time and costs during the design phase.

Relators: Riccardo Pollo, Ingrid Paoletti
Publication type: Printed
Subjects: D Industrial Design and Applied Arts > DI Digital graphics
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Per Il Progetto Sostenibile
Classe di laurea: New organization > Master science > LM-04 - ARCHITECTURE AND ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING
Aziende collaboratrici: UNSPECIFIED
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/6127



Research Objectives



1.1 Problem Statement

1.2 Background

1.3 Prototypingand Virtual Reality

1.4 The concept of Immersive Reality

1.5 Concept generation for Healthcare Design

1.6 Final Goal of the Thesis: HR

1.7 Methodology

1.8 Conclusion and Future Perspectives


2.1 Design review

2.2 Design Approach in Healthcare Facilitie

2.3 Immersive Reality for design review in Healthcare

2.4 State of the art of Virtual Prototyping

2.5 Differences between virtual and interactive prototyping

2.6 Evalutation of IR and VR for AEC fields

2.7 Game engines to develop Interaction in IR

2.8 Stimulus experience through templates


3.1 Adopted approach for the research

3.2 Steps

3.3 Methods and tools Used

3.4 Evaluation of the research

3.5 Case Studies Investigated


4.1 Developing Methods

4.2 Analysis of needs and requirements

4.2.1 Stakeholders

4.2.2 Templates Documentation

4.2.3 Templates Structure

4.3 IIR Design

4.3.1 Architecture of IIR

4.3.2 Graphical User Interface

4.3.3 Interaction Media

4.4 IIR Interactivity

4.4.1 Navigation

4.4.2 Objects

4.4.3 GUI development

4.4.4 Process of scripting for Templates

4.5 Analysis of IIR improvement

4.5.1 Reusable model content

4.5.2 Development Strategy

4.5.3 Procedure for Interactivity


5.1 Evaluation of IIR application

5.2 Discoveries of the thesis

5.3 Contribution to the AEC domani

5.4 PRO and CON of IR and VR

5.5 Efforts in developing IIR

5.6 Future Perspectives

5.6.1 Improvement of interoperability

5.6.2 Improvement of Templates

5.6.3 Developing interaction features

5.6.4 Studies to generates templates

5.7 Final remarks

5.7.1 Paradigm shifts in design phase for AEC





S. Capolongo, E. Bellini, D. Nachiero, A. Rebecchi, M. Buffoli, Soft qualities in healthcare, Method and tools for soft qualities design in hospitals' built environments, Ann lg., 24:6, pp 391-199, 2014

P. Astley, S. Capolongo, M. Gola, A. Tartaglia, Operative and design adaptability in healthcare facilities, Technè, 9, pp 162-170, 2015

State-of-the-art, Product portfolio hospital courtesy of Hospital Technik Group

Dario Bonino,Tecnologie real time per la realtà virtuale. Applicazioni al turismo, master degree Thesis, Poly-technic of Turin, course of Ingegneria Elettronica, Academic year 2002, sup. prof. Fulvio Corno.

Stefano Trimachi, Progetto euristico e realtà virtuale, quale sponda im-maginifica dell'Architettura. Presen-tazione del progetto 2° classificato al Milano design camping, master degree thesis, Polytechnic of Milan, v. 56, n.1,pp 139-142, 2007

E.E. Osaji, A.D.F. Price, EXPLORING THE ROLE OF MODELLING, SIMULATION, AND VISUALISATION (MSV) IN INNOVATING HEALTHCARE ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN, 2008, available at: https://www.irb.fraunhofer.de/CIBIibrary/search-quick-result-list.jsp?ALLE=&Re- sultCount=10&start=1&Ti-tle=&Contributors=&Source=&-ConfData=&CIBWCTG=&CIB-SpS=&CIBPT=ALL&CIBPPT=&-PubType=conference+proceed-ings&PubDateFrom=&PubDa-teUntil=&PubCodes=&ueber-geord=CIB+DC17549&SortSpec=-jahr+desc+i0011+desc+sort2+as-c&idSuche=CIB+DC17666&de-tailed=true&Searchtype=categories

H. Bullinger, W. Bauer, G. Wenzel, R. Blach, Towards user centred design (UCD) in architecture based on Immersive virtual environments, 2010, available at: http://www.sci- encedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S0166361509002115 M. Reaney, Lighting Simulation in Virtual Scenery, Theatre Design & Technology, v46, n. 2, pp 40-45 2010

C. Culp, Integrating BIM and gamin for real-time interactive architectural visualization, 2011, available at: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/229339883

A. Loffler, L. Marsalek, H. Hoffman, P. Slusallek, Realistic Lighting Simulation for Interactive VR Applications, 2011, available at: https://graphics. cg.uni-saarland.de/fileadmin/cguds/papers/2011/loefflerjvrc2011/loef- flerjvrc2011_rev2012.pdf

L. Zhang, J. Gossmann, C. Steven-son, M. Chi, G. Cauwenberghs, K.Gramann, J. Schulze, P. Otto, T.

Jung, R. Peterson, E. Edelstein, E. Macagno, Spatial Cognition and Architectural Design in 4D Immersive Virtual Reality: Testing Cognition with a Novel Audiovisual CAVE-CAD Tool, 2011, available at: https:// www.semanticscholar.org/paper/ Spatial-Cognition-and-Architectural-Design-in-4D-l-Zhang-Gossmann/c73f4d3b987d0af92bfb- 810475875c5b3ffc4f90

D. Fonseca, N. Martí, E. Redondo, I. Navarro, A. Sánchez, Relationship between student profile, tool use, participation, and academic performance with the use of Augmented Reality technology for visualized architecture models, Computers in Human Behavior, v. 31, pp 434-445, 2013

X. Wang, M. J. Kim, P. E.D. Love, S. Kang, Augmented Reality in built environment: Classification and implications for future research, Automation in Construction , v. 32, pp 1-13,2013

D.Tutt, C.Harty, JOURNEYS THROUGH THE CAVE: THE USE OF 3D IMMERSIVE ENVIRONMENTS FOR CLIENT ENGAGEMENT PRACTICES IN HOSPITAL DESIGN, 2013, available at: http://www.arcom.ac.uk/-docs/proceedings/ar2013-0111 -0121 _ Tutt_Harty.pdf

F. Castronovo, D. Nikolic, Y. Liu, J. I. Messner, An evaluation of immersive virtual reality systems for design reviews, 2013, available at: https://www.research- gate.net/publication/286095846

A. Angulo, G. V. De Velasco, Immersive Simulation of Architectural Spatial Experiences, 2013, available at: http://papers.cumincad.org/data/ works/att/sigradi2013J212.content. pdf

A. Heydarian, J. P. Carneiro, D.Gerber, B. Becerik-Gerber,T. Hayes, W. Wood, IMMERSIVE VIRTUAL ENVIRON-MENTS: EXPERIMENTS ON IMPACT-ING DESIGN AND HUMAN BUILDING INTERACTION, 2014, available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278410856Jmmersive_virtual_environments_experiments_on_impacting_design_and_human_buildingJnteraction

J.C.T.R. Araùjo, Virtual Reality for Lighting Simulation in Events, 2014, available at: https://fenix. tecnico.ulisboa.pt/download- File/395146459018/resumo.pdf

J. Whyte, A. Ganah, Visualization in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC), 2014, available at: https://www.researchgate.net/ publication/222576637

A. Heydarian, E. Pantazis, D. J. Gerber, B. Becerik-Gerber, Towards Understanding End-User Lighting Preferences in Office Spaces by Using Immersive Virtual Environments, 2015, available at: https:// www.researchgate.net/publication/279287672

A. Angulo, Rediscovering Virtual Reality in the Education of Architectural Design: The immersive simulation of spatial experiences, 2015, available at: http:// ambiances. revues.org/594

J. Kieferle, U. Woessner, BIM Inter-active - About Combining BIM and Virtual Reality - A Bidirectional Inter-action Method for BIM Models in Different Environments, 2015, available at: http://papers.cumincad.org/data/ works/att/ecaade2015_329.content. pdf

Maftei, Challenging design perceptions in immersive virtual reality environments?, 2016, available at: http://centaur.reading.ac.uk/67900/

Laura-Lee Moran, Denis Hebert, Viewing a Space Before it's a Space -Virtual Reality for Design Verification, 2016, available at: http:// au.autodesk.com/au-online/class- course of Architettura, Academic year 2009-2010, sup. prof Alessandra Zanelli

Elisabetta Locatelli, Unità di Terapia Intensiva "Aperta": "intimità condivi-sa". Schema di identità progettuale sensoriale-percettivo, master degree thesis, Polytechnic of Milan, course of Ingegneria Edile-Architettura, Academic year 2009-2010, sup. prof Stefano Capolongo

Annika Danielsson, Healthy Hosptal Design - the case of Kolandoto Hospital in Tanzania, master degree thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, course of Architecture, Academic year 2015, sup. prof Emilio Brandao

Fabien MARTIN, Niranan TAMRAKAR, VASTERAS operation center, master degree thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, course of Architecture, Academic year 2012, sup. prof Peter Frost

Adithya Ganapathi Subramanian, Immersive Virtual Reality system, using BIM application with extended vertical field of view, master of science, Texas A&M University, course Civil Engineering, Academic year 2012, sup. prof Sturat Anderson, sup. prof Julian Kang

Marika Mandolini, Un'applicazione di realtà virtuale mediante tecnologia immersiva Oculus, master degree thesis, Università di Bologna Campus di Cesena-Scuola di Scienze, course of Scienze e Tecnologie informatiche, Academic year 2013-2014, sup. prof Damiana Lazzaro

Sahar Ali Aseeri, Virtual Interaction Using Mobile Devices, master of science, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology Saudi Arabia, course of Science and Technology, sup. prof Peter Wonka

Alex Piermatteo, Soluzione alla realizzazione di tour immersivi per dispositivi di Realtà Virtuale, master degree thesis, Polytechnic of Milan, Academic year 2014-2015, sup. prof Luciano Baresi

Lars Madsen Hestman, The Potential of Utilizing BIM Models with the WebGL Technology for Building Virtual Environments, PhD thesis, NTNU-Trondheim Norwegian University of Science and Technology, course of Informatics, Academic year 2015, sup. Prof Theoharis Theoharis

Mikael Johasson, From BIM to VR - the design and development of BIMXplorer, PhD thesis, Department of Civil and environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Academic year 2016

Michele Scialpi, II BIM e I'interoperabilità tra i software, dalla gestione dei flussi informativi alle criticità del processo gestionale, master degree thesis, Polytechnic of Milan, course of Ingegneria dei sistemi Edilizi, Academic year 2015-2016, sup. prof Paolo rigone, sup. prof Pierpaolo Ruttico

T. Hollerer, S. Feiner, T. Terauchi, G. Rashid, D. Hallaway, Exploring MARS: developing indoor and outdoor user interfaces to a mobile augmented reality system, Computers & Graphics, v.23, pp 779-785, 1999

J. C. Silverstein, F. Dech, M. Edison, P. Jurek,W.S. Helton, N.J. Espat, Virtual reality: Immersive hepatic surgery educational environment, Surgery, v. 132, n. 2, pp 274-277, 2002

J. R. Wilson, M. D'Cruz, Virtual and interactive environments for work of the future, Int. J. Human-Computer Studies v. 64, pp 158-169, 2005

L. Li, M. Zhang, F. Xu, S. Liu, ERT-VR: an immersive virtual reality system for emergency rescue training, 2005, available at: https://link.springer. com/article/10.1007/s 10055-004- 0149-6

J. I. Messner, M. Moeck, D. Riley, Virtual facility prototyping for sustainable project delivery, 2006,, available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242406865_VirtuaLfacility„prototyping_„for_sustainable_project_de!ivery?enrichld=rgreq-5776a1c076edf677521943bf57125103-XXX&enrichSource=Y292ZXJQYWdIOzlOMjQwNjg2NTtBUzoONTgzMDE0MTU2NjE1 NjhAMTQ4Njl30Dk4MDE2Mw%3D%3D&el=1_x_3&_esc=publicationCoverPdf

T. Majumdar, M. A. Fischer, B. R. Schwegler, CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REVIEW WITH A VIRTUAL REALITY MOCK-UP MODEL, 2006, available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228750252_Conceptual_design„review_with_a_virtual_reality_mock-up_model

A. Madani, B. Gallix, C. M. Pugh, D. Azagury, P. Bradley, D. Fowler, B. Hannaford, S. Macdonald, K. Miya- saka, N. Ñuño, A. Szold, V.Verter, R. Aggarwal, Evaluating the role of simulation in healthcare innovation: recommendations of the Simnovate Medical Technologies Domain Group, 2017, available at: http://stel. bmj.com/content/3/Suppl_1/S8

Unity Manual, available at: https:// docs.unity3d.com/Manual/index. html, accessed, june 6, 2016

C# for Unity Game Development, available at: https://www.lynda.com/Unity-tutorials/Learning-C-Unity-Game-Development/540497-2.html, accessed, june 7, 2016

Animating for Unity 3D in 3dsMax, available at: https://www.lynda. com/3ds-Max-tutorials/Ammating-Unity-3D-3ds-Max/143342-2. html, accessed, june 22, 2016

Unity: Materials and Lighting, available at: https://www.lynda. com/Unity-tutorials/Materials-Light- ing-Unity/133342-2.html, accessed, july 1,2016

Healthcare Equipment, Archmodels vol. 70, available at: https://evermotion.org/shop/show_product/archmodels-vol-70/2899

Revit Families, Healthcare Equipment, available at: https://www.revitcity.com/downIoads.php?action=viewmf04&mf04_ I2_id=7

Operating Theater, available at: http://www.medirum.se/pdf/ 0P_0T_DE_ENG_1 _05_P0412.pdf, accessed March 23,2017

Ospedali, cliniche, case di cura from Ordine Architetti Firenze, available at: http://www.ordinearchitetti.fi.it/ writable/notula_on_line/CC%20 1 %202011 .pdf, accessed, April 26, 2017

HYBRID OPERATING ROOM DESIGN GUIDE, available at: http://cdn2.hubspot.net/hub/373897/file-2106554003-pdf/

Freeman White_Hybrid_operating_ room_design_guide.pdf, accessed, april 29, 2017

A New Era With Hybrid Operating Systems, available at: https://medical.toshiba.com/down- load/vl-hybrid-cs-hybridos, accessed, May 1,2017

Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Healthcare Industry Market to Reach $2.54 Billion by 2020, available at: https://www.medgadget. com/2015/09/augmented-reality-virtual-reality-healthcare-industry-market-reach-2-54-billion-2020. html, accessed, May 2,2017

Industrial Internet of Things (HOT) Market to Reach $123.89 Billion by 2020, available at: http://industryarc.com/Press- Release/60/industrial-inter- net-of-things.html, accessed, May 2, 2017

Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality in Healthcare Industry Market to Reach $2.54 Billion by 2020, available at: https://www.medgadget. com/2015/09/augmented-reality-virtual-reality-healthcare-industry-market-reach-2-54-billion-2020. html, accessed, May 3, 2017

The 5 Main Benefits of Using VR for Architecture and Design Today, available at: http://www.lngstudios. com/blog/the-5-main-benefits-of- using-vr-for-architecture-and-de- sign-today, accessed, May 3,2017

Modify record (reserved for operators) Modify record (reserved for operators)