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Il Significato del Gate nella Cina Urbana in Transizione Sfide e Potenzialità del Gate nelle Città Cinesi Contemporanee

Hamama, Badiaa

Il Significato del Gate nella Cina Urbana in Transizione Sfide e Potenzialità del Gate nelle Città Cinesi Contemporanee.

Rel. Mauro Berta, Liu Jian, Michele Bonino, Francesca Governa. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città, 2017

Abstract:

Oggigiorno, il fenomeno delle comunità recintate è riconosciuto a livello globale, ma nel caso della Cina, le forme urbane chiuse e recintate sono un fenomeno che ha contraddistinto la storia urbana cinese sin da tempi antichi. Difatti, tale elemento è presente nella struttura della città feudale, nei palazzi fortificati a disposizione dei nobili e nelle case a corte per la popolazione di basso ceto. Un altro esempio sono work units o danwei, del periodo socialista, fino ad arrivare alle attuali gated communities che dominano l’assetto urbano di tante città.

Le ultime direttive elaborate dalla China’s Central Urban Work Conference nel dicembre del 2015 hanno identificato nelle gated communities una delle cause del traffico, di conseguenza, hanno constatato la necessità di bandirne la costruzione, demolire i recinti di quelle esistenti e collegare le strade interne con quelle pubbliche con l’obiettivo di facilitare i flussi del traffico. Tale proposta suscitò un largo dibattito e opposizione da parte dei residenti e degli esperti legali, quest’ultimi hanno sottolineato come la nuova direttiva sia contro la Legge di Proprietà del 2007 che dichiara: “le strade e altre aree pubbliche e servizi all’interno di un’area costruita, sono proprietà comune dei detentori, ad eccezione delle strade pubbliche di proprietà della città”.

Al fine di comprendere i significati e le forze dietro il fenomeno degli insediamenti urbani confinati, che hanno caratterizzato particolarmente la città cinese, l’autore della tesi ha deciso di analizzare un lasso di tempo che parta dalla monarchia centrale fino a toccare i giorni nostri, con l’obiettivo di captare idee che possano aiutare a generare alternative alla demolizione, ripensando alla presenza del ‘confine’ nella città contemporanea Cinese. La demolizione delle mura o dei recinti in generale e la costruzione di nuove strade all’interno delle comunità chiuse, potrebbe contribuire letteralmente ad alleviare il problema del traffico per un breve periodo, ma sicuramente non è la soluzione per risolverlo. Le cause del traffico e le conseguenti problematiche di cui stanno soffrendo diverse città cinesi, non è dato (solamente) dalla presenza del gate o del muro, ma piuttosto dal modo in cui gli organi vitali della città siano stati organizzati e distribuiti negli ultimi decenni, il problema è la mancanza di una strategia di ‘ordine spaziale e funzionale’.

In Cina, sin dal periodo delle riforme economiche e di apertura, la forma urbana di molte città ha sperimentato drammatici cambiamenti che hanno trasformato i tradizionali insediamenti urbani, caratterizzati da alta densità e bilancio funzionale, in nuovi sviluppi urbani particolarmente decentralizzati. Di conseguenza, elaborare nuovi approcci che possano promuovere un sistema urbano, in cui le diverse entità urbane siano collaborative le une con le altre piuttosto che in conflitto, potrebbe portare a dei benefici alla città in quanto un ‘insieme’ e non un semplice contenitore di realtà separate e conflittuali. E’ previsto che l’equilibrio casa-lavoro potrebbe ridurre i tempi di percorrenza e le relative conseguenze in termini di traffico e inquinamento. Gli aspetti positivi delle danweis, come modello urbano autosufficiente, integrati con le specifiche esigenze della città cinese contemporanea e lo stile di vita dei suoi residenti, potrebbe offrire un’alternativa per la Cina che sta tentando di ripensare o rimodellare le sue città dominate dalle comunità chiuse, in molti casi ‘città passive all’interno della città’.

Per ulteriori informazioni contattare:

Badiaa Hamama, badiaa.hamama@hotmail.com

Relatori: Mauro Berta, Liu Jian, Michele Bonino, Francesca Governa
Tipo di pubblicazione: A stampa
Soggetti: A Architettura > AN Opere di ingegneria civile, trasporti, comunicazioni
A Architettura > AO Progettazione
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città
Classe di laurea: Nuovo ordinamento > Laurea magistrale > LM-04 - ARCHITETTURA E INGEGNERIA EDILE-ARCHITETTURA
Aziende collaboratrici: NON SPECIFICATO
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/6078
Capitoli:

INDEX

1 Introduction

1.1 Statement of the Research Problems

1.2 The Significance of the Research

1.3 Open-up the Gate: A New Phase of Urban Experiments?

1.4 Research Design

1.4.1 Research Purpose and Structure

1.4.2 Research Questions

1.4.3 Methodologies

2 The Transitional Meaning of Gating in Urban China

2.1 Introduction

2.2 The Meaning of the Gate in Chinese Centralized Feudal Monarchy. Pre-Socialist China

2.2.1 In Search for a Socio-Spatial Ordered and Balanced Urban Model

2.2.2 The Wall and the Wards: A Tool of Urban and Social Control Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C. - A.D. 9)

2.2.3 Towards the Decline of the Li Fang System. Sui-Tang Dynasties (581-617 A.D.; 618-907 A.D.)

2.2.4 Tang Chang'an’s Over-Scaled Streets

2.2.5 The Disintegration of the Li Fang System

2.2.6 The Influence of the Chinese Imperial City Model Beyond its Borders

2.2.7 The Double Function of the Wall with non-Chinese Rulers. Period of Fragmentation (907-960 A.D.)

2.2.8 The Fall of Li Fang and the Raise of Fang Xiang: Towards the Rise of the Commercial Street. Song Dynasty (960-1276 A.D.) and Beyond

2.2.9 Power Controls Cities Not (the Freedom of) its Urban Commoners: Reflections on the Emergence of the Commercial Street in Song China

2.3 The Meaning of the Gate in Socialist China 1949-1976. The Danwei - Cities Within the City

2.3.1 The Revival of the Ward System Under Mao Zedong's Socialist State

2.3.2 The Early Urban Experiments Before the Work-Unit Compounds

2.3.3 The Neighbourhood Unit

2.3.4 The Perimeter-block

2.3.5 The Microrayon

2.3.6 The Danwei, Autonomous ‘Cities Within the City’

2.3.7 The Role of the Circulation System in the Socialist Urban Landscape

2.3.8 The Dominance of the Danwei as the Main Urban Entity

2.4 The Meaning of the Gate in Post-Socialist China 1978 - Present. Chinese Cities Under the Transition Market

2.4.1 ‘No matter what colour the cat is, the one that catch the mouse is the good one’

2.4.2 Towards a Market-Oriented Philosophy

2.4.3 The Renaissance of the Urban Planning System in China - The City Planning Act, 1989

2.4.4 The Ghost of Housing Shortages and the Way Toward Privatization

2.4.5 The Establishment of Land-Market - The End of Free Land Use Era

2.4.6 The New Urban Experiments in The Age of Privatization

2.4.7 The Re-Invention of the ‘Neighbourhood Unit'

2.4.8 The Emergence of Specialized Estate-Management Companies and the Abandonment of the ‘Housing Cluster’ Unit

2.4.9 Close-Up the Gates - The Emergence of the New Poor

3 Rethinking the Gate: Repercussions, Possibilities, and Future Potentials

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Continuity and Change in the Meaning of the Gate

3.3 Looking Beyond the Physical Presence of the Wall - Invisible Reasons Behind the Boundaries

3.4 Within Reality and Illusion - A Continuum of Conflicts and Contradictions

3.5 Towards Alternative Strategies to Rethink the Gated Communities

3.6 The Case of Tiantongyuan - The ‘Sleeping City’ Within the City

3.7 Rethinking the Gated Communities as Part of an Interconnected Urban Entity

3.8 A Self-Contained Complementary System of Micro- Centralities

3.9 Restore the Vital Role of the In-Between Spaces

3.10 A Multi-Leveled System of Spaces

4 Conclusions, Limitations of the Research, and Recommendations for Future Work

4.1 Conclusions

4.2 Limitations of the Research, and Recommendations for Future Work

References Acknowledgement Personal Statement Curriculum Vitae

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