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Cost optimal in the refubishment of public buildings toward nearly zero energy target : a case study : Piedmont local education authority office, Turin

De Riccardis, Daniele and Baccouche, Haifa

Cost optimal in the refubishment of public buildings toward nearly zero energy target : a case study : Piedmont local education authority office, Turin.

Rel. Vincenzo Corrado, Simona Paduos. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città, 2016

Abstract:

GENERAL OVERVIEW

Reducing the building energy consumption to nearly zero energy level is one of the priority directions towards finding modern solutions to improve the energy performance of the building sector. In accordance with Directive 2010/31/EC and the Energy Efficiency Plan 2011, Member States of the European Union shall draw up national action plans for taking the energy consumption and related Greenhouse-Gas of new buildings close to zero and for stimulating the refurbishment of the existing building stock into nearly zero-energy buildings. The provisions of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD) introduced in Article 9 the concept of nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB) stating that "by 31 December 2020, all new buildings are nearly zero - energy buildings; and after 31 December 2018, new buildings occupied and owned by public authorities are nearly zero-energy buildings". Although the EPBD Recast focuses on ex-novo, the energy and C02 emissions associated with the refurbishment of existing buildings towards nZEB are worth being investigated because of their huge energy saving potentialities. Notably existing public buildings refurbishments play a crucial role in reaching the european goals for energy saving: they lead as example for private investors and should therefore endeavor to implement the nZEB fully. This thesis work stemmed from the IEE RePublic_ZEB project, in which the Department of Energy (DENERG) at the Polytechnic of Turin was involved, representing the italian contribution. Among the many european projects that took place in the last few years, this is aimed at supporting the refurbishment of public buildings in southern Europe towards the nearly zero energy target. The nZEB concept ragarding renovations, in fact, still does not seem to be easily applied by member countries: the past and current IEE programs efforts clearly show that required investments and optimal integration of the technologies suitable for the renovation of buildings are among the major barriers to the implementation.

Furthermore, the lack of confidence of building industry and building owners in the real energy performance of nZEBs and the concrete risks associated to new technologies seem to represent one of the keypoints the resolution of which could possibly solve the problem related to the high investments required in the process. In this context, the RePublic_ZEB proposal is focused on economically sustainable strategies and policies aimed at enforcing the refurbishment of the public building stock towards nZEB levels, according to EU 20/20/20 target. Thus the main objectives are to encourage the South-Eastern European countries to promote on the market a set of concrete technical solutions for the refurbishment of their public building stock towards the nearly zero energy target by increasing the involved key actors' confidence in nZEB, taking this way tangible steps to accelerate the renovation process and boost a real market demand to such buildings.

In order to achieve the above mentioned goals, the addressed key actors are meant to be builders and public building owners, policy developers (authorities), building technology industries and national professionals associations referred to the building industry (as architects and engineers). The thesis mainly concerned Work Package n° 3 (Assessment of the status quo and analysis of opportunities for refurbishing public buildings towards nZEB) and Work Package n° 4 (Costs/ benefits analysis of the "packages of measures" for the refurbishment towards nZEB): these were also the steps taken in our work, applying cost optimality on the office case study.

Within the first step, the energy efficiency measures to be applied through deep refurbishment interventions on offices were detailed. The interventions concern the building envelope, HVAC, DHW and lighting systems, including technologies based on the usage of RES. This stage was aimed to define a set of the most suitable building technologies (Energy Efficiency Measures) available on the italian market to reach the nZEB target for the public building stock. Local installers, manufacturers and technicians were involved in the market survey. We committed to being as precise as possible regarding the costs of the several interventions, going beyond the Piedmont Price List, our purpose was not to underestimate the evaluations, trying to provide costs and technical data as close as possible to reality, assuming the real implementation of such a project.

In the following phase, corresponding to the WP4, the most suitable building technologies and technical systems were combined into packages of measures for the cost optimal energy and economic analysis. The aim of this step was to provide quantitative results in terms of saving energy and corresponding cost benefits that, in case of a real refurbishment, could increase builders' confidence in nZEB projects.

For the application of this methodology, an Excel format calculation tool was developed by the DENERG, it consists in a series of interconnected sheets able to provide, for each case study considered, the best cost-benefit technology solution aimed at reducing energy consumption, both for new buildings and existing buildings undergoing total renovation. The energy assessment was conducted using a quasi-stationary methodology, in accordance with technical specifications UNI/TS 11300-1/4, in order to predict global energy consumption for individual buildings; the economic assessment was conducted in accordance with standard UNI EN 15459 with the aim to predict the overall cost in a context of new construction or total renovation.

In conclusion, it can be said that, as the nZEB is not yet considered cost-efficient, cost optimal and nZEB requirements still have to be reconciled so that a smooth transaction from cost optimal requirements to nearly zero energy buildings could be guaranteed. This will require significant policy interventions, including increased support for research, development, deployment and demonstration of advanced building technologies. Such european projects are essential for policy makers as they can provide them tools to critically analyze the incentive system of our country, to identify any inconsistencies introduced in the recent past and to search for the opportunities offered by new technologies, in order to optimize the efforts. This is even more important for Italian public existing buildings, for which nZEB renovations requirements have just been introduced and common practices still need to be assessed.

Relatori: Vincenzo Corrado, Simona Paduos
Tipo di pubblicazione: A stampa
Soggetti: A Architettura > AM Estimo
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SH Fisica tecnica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città
Classe di laurea: NON SPECIFICATO
Aziende collaboratrici: NON SPECIFICATO
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4589
Capitoli:

SUMMARY

GENERAL OVERVIEW

PART 1

1_THE ENERGY REGULATION FRAMEWORK

1.1 THE EUROPEAN ENERGY REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

1.1.1 The EU Directive on the energy performance of buildings: EPBD 2002/91

1.1.2 The European 20 -20 -20 Targets

1.1.3 The EPBD recast

1.2 THE ITALIAN ENERGY REGULATORY FRAMEWORK

1.2.1 The national Law 10/1991

1.2.2 EPBD national implementation

1.2.3 EPBD recast national implementation towards the 2020 targets

2_THE COST OPTIMAL METHODOLOGY

2.1 THE COST OPTIMAL APPROACH

2.1.1 Definition of the reference buildings

2.1.2 Identification of the energy efficiency measures

2.1.3 Calculation of the primary energy performance

2.1.4 Calculation of the Global Cost

2.1.5 Cost Optimal level of energy performance requirements

2.1.6 Undertaking of sensitivity analysis

3_NEARLY ZERO ENERGY BUILDINGS

3.1 NEARLY ZERO ENERGY BUILDINGS (nZEB)

3.2 COST OPTIMAL TOWARDS nZEB

3.3 EUROPEAN COUNTRIES nZEB SCENARIO

3.3.1 Cross - country comparison

3.4 EU RESEARCH ON nZEBs

3.4.1 Before RePublic_ZEB

3.4.2 RePublic ZEB

PART 2

1_THE CASE STUDY: STATE OF ART

1.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING

1.1.1 The climate data

1.2 THE ENVELOPE

1.2.1 Opaque envelope

1.2.2 Transparent envelope

1.3 THE TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

1.3.1 Heating system

1.3.2 Dhw system

1.3.3 Ventilation system

1.3.4 Lighting system

1.4 THE THERMAL ZONES

1.3 THE TECHNICAL DATA SHEET

2_TECHIMOLOGIES FOR REFURBISHMENT

2.1 THE ENVELOPE

2.1.1 Regulatory framework and characterizing parameters

2.1.2 Italy and prospects for the envelope retrofit

2.1.3 Opaque envelope retrofit

2.1.4 Transparent envelope retrofit

2.1.5 List of technologies, parameters and costs

2.2 THE HEATING, COOLING AND DHW TECHNICAL SYSTEMS

2.2.1 Italy and prospects for energy effciency

2.2.2 Technologies for energy efficiency - an overview

2.2.3 Emission retrofit

2.2.4 Control retrofit

2.2.5 Heating/cooling generation retrofit

2.2.6 Distribution and storage sub-system retrofit

2.3 THE THERMAL SOLAR SYSTEM

2.3.1 Flat solar, Vacuum solar collectors retrofit

2.3.2 List of technologies, parameters and costs

2.4 THE PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) SYSTEM

2.4.1 List of technologies, parameters and costs

2.5 THE VENTILATION AND AIR HANDLING

2.5.1 Regulatory framework and parameters characterizing

2.5.2 Air handling unit retrofit

2.5.3 List of technologies, parameters and costs

2.6 THE LIGHTING TECHNICAL SYSTEM

2.6.1 Regulatory framework and characterizing parameters

2.6.2 Artificial lighting sources retrofit

2.6.3 Lighting control retrofit

2.6.4 List of technologies, parameters and costs

3_THE CASE STUDY: RETROFIT

3.1 DEFINITION OF THE REFURBISHMENT ENERGY MEASURES AND PACKAGES

3.1.1 The envelope refurbishment

3.1.2 The heating, cooling and DHW technical systems refurbishment

3.1.3 Ventilation and air handling refurbishment

3.1.4 PV system

3.1.5 The lighting system refurbishment

3.2 QUASI STEADY CALCULATION PROCEDURE

3.2.1 Calculation of the actual energy performance and referred actualized costs

3.2.2 Calculation of the cost-optimal solution

3.2.3 Search for the nZEB solution

3.3 DYNAMIC CALCULATION PROCEDURE

3.4 RESULTS

3.4.1 Quasi-steady calculation and TOOL results

3.4.2 Dynamic calculation results

4_CONCLUSIONS

ANNEX

ANNEX I - Republic_ZEB PARTNERS

ANNEX II. INSULATING MATERIALS

ANNEX III. WINDOWS TYPOLOGIES

ANNEX IV. HVAC AND DHW SYSTEM COSTS DATA

ANNEX V. PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

ANNEX VI. HEAT RECOVERY VENTILATION AN AIR HANDLING UNIT

ANNEX VII. CALCULATION OF LIGHTING POWER DENSITY USING DIFFERENT LIGHTING SOURCES

AND RELATIVE COSTS

ANNEX VIII. LAYERS OF ENVELOPE BUILDING COMPONENTS FOR REFURBISHMENT

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliografia:

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