polito.it
Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Influence of acoustics on vocal performance of lyric singers

Falzone, Daniela

Influence of acoustics on vocal performance of lyric singers.

Rel. Arianna Astolfi, Alessio Carullo, Stephen Dance. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città, 2013

Questa è la versione più aggiornata di questo documento.

Abstract:

This study is a collaboration between the Polytechnic of Turin and the Acoustic Group of South Bank University of London.

Voice use play a significant role in the causation of many common voice disorders caused by chronic and recurrent conditions, which result from an incorrect use of the voice or from poor acoustic conditions in the environments where the voice is used.

Scientific data in literature show that the singers of classical lyric orchestras are exposed to high risk of damage to the vocal apparatus due to the intense effort they have to face during the artistic performances.

New protectionist laws impose to evaluate all different risk factors in the workplaces.

All categories of workers are included and, among them, workers employed in recreational activities and shows should be considered.

The object of this dissertation is an investigation in singers’ vocal parameters in order to understand how they change under different acoustical conditions. At the beginning the acoustics of 5 different spaces was analyzed: the Sir Jack Lyons Theatre and a rehearsal room, both located at the Royal Academy of Music in London, and the anechoic, semi-reverberant and reverberation chamber located at the LSBU.

After the room’s acoustics study, four singers volunteer (3 females and 1 male) were monitored in those different spaces and they were asked to execute some vocal exercises such as scales or arpeggios for 3 minutes.

To take this measurements two battery powered devices were used and during the test an

accelerometer was attached on their throat using a medical secure silicone adhesive wich was

removed at the end of each test by a specific Uni-Solve adhesive remover wipe. During the test in the anechoic chamber they were asked to sing an opera aria too in order to record their voice to make auralizations with the software CATT. The auralization is typically the final stage in a predictive assessment and its aim is to demonstrate of a space’s prospective performance to both experts and non experts in acoustics. At the end of each test they were asked to fill a short questionnaire about their personal perception singing in those different venues.

Relatori: Arianna Astolfi, Alessio Carullo, Stephen Dance
Tipo di pubblicazione: A stampa
Soggetti: S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SA Acustica
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SH Fisica tecnica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura Costruzione Città
Classe di laurea: NON SPECIFICATO
Aziende collaboratrici: London South Bank University (LSBU) - London - United Kingdom
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/3345
Capitoli:

Introduction

Acoustics of spaces

2.1 Room parameters

2.1.1 ISO 3382

2.1.2 Reverberation time [s]

2.1.3 Early Decay Time (EDT) or Early Reverberation Time [ms]

2.1.4 Clarity Factor (C80) [dB]

2.1.5 Definition (D50) [%]

2.2 Equipment and devices

2.3 Measurements in situ

2.3.1 Anechoic chamber, semi-reverberant chamber, reverberation chamber

2.3.2 Results

2.3.3 Royal Academy of Music

2.3.4 T12rehearsal room, Sir Jack Lyons Theatre

2.3.5 Results

2.4 Software and modeling (Sketchup and CATT Acoustics)

Acoustics of singers

3.1 The Voice organ

3.1.1 The formants

3.2 Features of the singing voice

3.2.1 Styles

3.2.2 Registers

3.2.3 Range

3.2.4 Intonation

3.2.5 Vibrato

3.2.6 Choir Sound/Choral Blend

3.2.7 Relative Duration of Vowels and Consonants

3.2.8 Temporal Structure of Sung Syllables

3.2.9 Diction

3.2.10 Intelligibility

3.3 Voice parameters

3.3.1 Primary indicators of voice (FO, SPL)

3.3.2 Vocal vibration doses (Dt, Dc,Dd, De)

3.4 Equipment and devices

3.4.1 Ambulatory phonation monitor (APM)

3.4.2 Voice-Care

3.5 Methods and singers' data collection

3.5.1 Notes and frequencies

3.5.2 Analysis

3.5.3 Results

3.5.4 AMP Vs Voice-Care

Auralization

6.1 Meaning

6.2 Pleasantness test through auralizations

Conclusion

Bibliography

Acknowledgements

Appendix 1

Notes and frequencies

Appendix 2

RAD (Relative Average Deviation) all singers in all venues with APM data

Appendix 3

Singers'questionnaire and results

Appendix 4

RAD calculation for the Soprano-Mezzo 2 in all venues with Voice-Care data

Appendix 5

Acoustics test and results

Appendix 6

APM Reports

Bibliografia:

1 A. Astolfi, P. Bottalico, A. Accornero, M. Garzaro, J. Nadalin and C. Gi Relationship between vocal doses and voice disorders on primary school teachers, Ei 2012, Prague 10-13 June, 2012.

2 A. Camilo, A. Vallan, and A. Astolfi, Design Issues for a Portable Vocal Analyze Tr. on IM, to be published.

3 Acoustical Society of America, online available at http://acousticalsociety.org/

4 Alba Losada Amor, An acoustic evaluation of the Sir Jack Lyons Theatre, Royal / of Music (London) Msc Dissertation. Thesis supervisor: Dr Stephen Dance, Lond< Bank University, 2011.

5 British Standard EN ISO 3382-1:2009. Acoustics - Measurement of room acoustic

6 British Standard EN ISO 3382-2:2008. Acoustics - Measurement of room acoustic

7 Camilo, A., Vallan, A., and Astolfi, A. (2013b). “A low-cost platform f monitoring,” Proc. IEEE I2MTC 2013, in press.

8 CATT-Acoustics website. Available from: http://www.catt.se/CATT-Acoustic.htm Congress on Acoustics, Trondheim, Vol. Ill, 39-44.

9 Flanagan James L., Allen Jont B., Hasegawa-Johnson Mark A., Speech Analysis and Perception third edition. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2008.

10 Fredric Lindstrom, Keni Ren, Haibo Li, Kerstin Persson Waye, Comparisor Methods of Voice Activity Detection in Field Studies. Journal of Speech, Lang Hearing Research, vol.52, December 2009, 1658-1663.

11 Fredric Lindstrom, Kerstin Persson Waye, Jonas Sjoholm, Magnus Berggren

dosimeter system where the contribution from the wearer’s own voice is exclu<

noise, Ottawa (Canada), 23-26, August 2009.

12 Frova Andrea, Fisica nella musica. Zanichelli, 1999.

13 Google SketchUp Software website. Available from http://sketchup.google.com/intl/en/

14 H.A. Cheyne, H.M. Hanson, R.P. Genereux, K.N. Stevens, R.E. Hillman, Development and Testing of a Portable Vocal Accumulator, Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, Vol. 46, December 2003, pp. 1457-1467.

15 Hunter, E. (2010). “Vocal dose measures: general rationale and recent efforts made by the national center for voice and speech,” Rivista Italiana di Acustica 34 (3), 37-42.

16 l.R. Titze, J.G. Svec, and P.S. Popolo, Vocal dose measures: Quantifying accumulated vibration exposure in vocal fold tissues, J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 46, 919-932 (2003).

17 Ingo R. Titze, Johan Sundberg, Vocal intensity in speakers and singers. JASA (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America), 91 (5), May 1992.

18 Ingo R. Titzem PhD, Workshop on Acoustic Voice Analysis summary statement. NCVS (The National Center for Voice and Speech), Denver (Colorado), 17lh and 18th February 1994.

19 J.G. Svec, I.R. Titze,, and P.S. Popolo, Estimation of sound pressure levels of voiced speech from skin vibration of the neck, J. Acoust. Soc.Am 117(3), March 2005, pp. 1386-1394.

20 Juvarra Antonio, II canto e le sue tecniche. Milano: Ricordi, 1988.

21 K,ayPENTAX Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM), Model 3200, online available at www.kaypentax.com

22 Kuttruff Heinrich, Room Acoustics fifth edition. Spon Press,2009.

23 La relazione tra le frequenze e le note musicali, available at http://tecnologiamusicale.wordpress.com/2012/07/30/la-relazione-tra-le-frequenze-e-le- note-musicali/

24 La voce artistica, online available at http://www.voceartistica.it/it-IT/index-/?ltem=Registri

25 Malte Kob, Nathalie Henrich, Hanspeter Herzel, David Howard, Isao Tokuda, Joe Wolfe, Analysing and Understanding the Singing Voice: Recent Progress and Open Questions. Current Bioinformtics, June 2011, 362-374.

26 Marcus Wirebrand, Real-time monitoring of voice characteristics using accelerometer and microphone measurements. Department of Electrical Engineering Linkopings universitet

27 Mari Nanda, canto e voce difetti causati da un errato studio del canto, quarta edizione. Milano: Ricordi, 1975

28 Matthias Echternach, Michael Dollinger, Johan Sundberg, Louisa Traser, Bernhard Richter, Vocal fold vibrations at high soprano fundamental frequencies. JASA (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America) Express Letters 133 (2), February 2013.

29 Mendel Kleiner, Bengt-inge Dalenback, Peter Svensson, Auralization- An Overview. J. AudioEng.Soc.,Vol.41,No. 11, Chalmers Room Acoustics Group, Department of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden 1993November.

30 Nicole Scotto Di Carlo, Effect of Multifactorial Constraints on Intelligibility of Opera Singing (II). Journal of Singing, Vol.63,No.5, May/June 2007.

31 P.S. Popolo, J.G. Svec, and I.R. Titze, Adaptation of a Pocket PC for Use as a Wearable Voice Dosimeter, Journal of Speech Language and Hearing Research, Vol. 48, August 2005, pp. 780-791.

32 P.S. Popolo, M.K. Rogge, J.G. Svec, I.R. Titze, Technical considerations in the design of a wearable voice dosimeter, www.ncsv.org.

parameters - Part 1: Performance spaces

parameters - Part 2: Reverberation time in ordinary rooms

33 Physics of Music- Notes, online available

http://www.phy.mtu.edu/~suits/NoteFreqCalcs.html

34 R. Buekers, E. Bierens, H. Kingma, and E.H. Marres, Vocal load as measured by the voice accumulator, Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 1995, 47, pp. 252-261.

35 R.E. Hillman, and D.D. Mehta, Ambulatory Monitoring of Daily Vocie Use, ASHA Journals Perspectives on Voice and Voice Disorders (2011), pp. 56-61.

36 R.Sisto, A.Pieroni, D. Annesi, P. Nataletti, F. Sanjust, C. Manfredi, M.Venzi, Vocal effort in singers of a national lyric orchestra., Department of Occupational Hygiene, ISPESL, Monteporzio Catone (Rome) Italy, Department of Electronics and Telecommunications,Università degli studi di Firenze, Firenze Italy.

37 Robert E. Hillman, PhD, James T. Heaton, PhD, Asa Masaki, Steven M. Zeitels, MD, Harold A. Cheyne, PhD, Ambulatory Monitoring of Disordered Voices. Annals of Otology, Rliinology & Laryngology 115 (11), 2006, 795-801.

38 Rossing, Thomas D.,Springer Handbook of Acoustics,Springer,2007.

SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden, 2011.

39 Shane Sugrue, Singing & Space: A comparative study of choral singers and perceptions of auditorium acoustics in three venue types, Dissertation submission for the award of MSc Environmental and Architectural Acoustics. Thesis supervisor: Dr Stephen Dance, London South Bank University, 2011.

40 Sundberg Johan, My research on the singing voice from a rear-view mirror perspective. Stockholm, Voice Research Centre, Department of Speech Music Hearing.

41 Sundberg Johan, the Acoustics of the Singing Voica, March 1977.

42 Sundberg, J. (1977) The acoustics of the singing voice. Scientific American 236, 82-91.

43 Sundberg, J. (1995) Acoustics of the singing voice. Proceedings of the 15th International

44 The National Center for Voice and Speech, online available at http://www.ncvs.or /

45 Thomas Carroll, MD, John Nix, MM, MME, Eric Hunter, PhD, Kate Emerich, MS, CCC- SLP, Ingo Titze, PhD, Mona Sbaza, MD, Objective measurement of vocal fatigue in

classical singers: A vocal dosimetry pilot study. Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery 136, 2006, 595-602.

46 Titze, I.R., Svec, J.G., and Popolo, P.S. (2003). “Vocal dose measures: Quantifying accumulated vibration exposure in vocal fold tissues,” J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 46, 919- 932.

47 Wikipedia the free encyclopedia available at http://www.wikipedia.org/

48 Youngmoo Edmund Kim, Singing Voice Analysis/Synthesis. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2003.

Modifica (riservato agli operatori) Modifica (riservato agli operatori)