Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Orecchia, Paola

Infuence of soundscapes on perception of safety and social presence in open public space.

Rel. Arianna Astolfi, Elena Bo, Francesco Aletta. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile, 2016

Abstract:

ENGLISH

Marketing and economics research has shown that music can change human intentions in some environments, such as restaurants (Wilson, 2003) or shopping malls (Milliman, 1986). However, there is a potential interest to study such effects also for social sciences and urban planning and design for public spaces. Recent researches have explored the potential of sound to mitigate antisocial behaviors and to improve the use of urban spaces (Lavia et al., 2016). In these studies, the music has been recommended as a tool to manipulate the safety-related perception and to increase the presence in some environments that risk becoming “no-go” areas. Music can modify the attractiveness of a place but, especially, it can reduce our fear that someone or something can damage us (Sayin et al., 2015).

The urban environment is always perceived with a co-occurrence of visual settings, which may interact with auditory judgments. The use of bi-modal (i.e., visual and aural) experimental settings should lead to a better evaluation of the environment experience. This could be explored throughout controlled experimental conditions carried out in laboratory, where a unified artificial place from the superimposition of visual scenes and sound stimuli, can be recreated. Until now, in the sound-related researches, most of the investigated scenarios are focused on auditory stimuli, while vision is the accessory modality, even though it may influence the auditory judgments (Viollon et al., 2002).

This chapter addresses the effect of different soundscapes, with or without music stimuli, on the safety-related perception and the feeling of social presence in an urban open space through a laboratory study. The study area is a pedestrian passage under a noisy flyover in the University campus of Sheffield, which was the object of a previous research. The previous study, that was developed in situ, showed that different kinds of music could affect the duration of stay (Aletta et al., 2016). In this experiment, participants had firstly to judge the current environment presented through three-dimensional views and the traffic noise as background sound, which constituted the control condition (i.e., no music). Then, participants evaluated three more acoustic environments superimposed to the same views, which consisted of a quieter condition obtained from the reduction of traffic noise thanks to the positioning of a sound barrier along the noisy street, and in the addition of two music background excerpts to the traffic noise. The selected excerpts has been related to previous experience in 2015: subjects heard the more influencing track (classic music: Waltz of the Flowers) and the less influencing one (jazz music: Creole Jazz). The results of a statistical survey (ANOVA) showed that background music improved the safety-related perception and the social presence feeling. In detail, jazz music was the stimulus that reported higher scores in these evaluations.

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Ricerche nel campo del marketing e dell’economia hanno dimostrato che la musica può cambiare la percezione e l’intenzione umana in alcuni ambienti, come i ristoranti (Wilson, 2003) o i centri commerciali (Milliman, 1986). Inoltre si sta sviluppando un potenziale interesse per lo studio del suono nell’ambito delle scienze sociali e della pianificazione urbana nonché in quello del progetto degli spazi pubblici. Recenti analisi hanno esplorato la potenzialità del suono nel mitigare comportamenti di non rispetto delle norme sociali e nel migliorare l’uso degli spazi urbani (Lavia et al., 2016). In questi studi, la musica viene considerata uno strumento per implementare la percezione di sicurezza e la presenza umana in alcuni luoghi che rischiano di diventare abbandonati. La musica può aumentare l’attrattività di uno spazio ma soprattutto può diminuire la sensazione di un possibile pericolo all’interno di esso (Sayin et al., 2015).

L’ambiente urbano è sempre percepito attraverso un’interazione tra il sistema visivo e quello acustico. L’uso di entrambi i sensi (vista e udito) permette una migliore valutazione dell’ambiente circostante. Quest’ultima può essere analizzata attraverso condizioni sperimentali controllate in laboratorio, dove viene ricreato un ambiente fittizio caratterizzato da impulsi visivi e sonori. Fino ad adesso, nelle ricerche relative al suono, la maggior parte degli scenari riprodotti in laboratorio erano focalizzati sullo stimolo uditivo, mentre quello visivo era una percezione aggiuntiva, nonostante ciò quest’ultimo poteva influenzare la valutazione del suono (Viollon et al., 2002).

Questa tesi indaga, in laboratorio, gli effetti dei differenti soundscapes, caratterizzati dalla presenza o meno di stimoli musicali, sulla sensazione di sicurezza e sulla percezione di esser in compagnia di qualcuno (social presence) nella riproduzione di uno spazio urbano. L’area di studio è un passaggio pedonale sotto un trafficato cavalcavia all’interno del campus universitario di Sheffield, la stessa zona è stata oggetto di una precedente ricerca. Lo studio precedente, che è stato sviluppato in situ, dimostrava come i differenti generi musicali potessero avere un riscontro sul tempo trascorso dalle persone nell’area (Aletta et al., 2016). Invece, nell’esperimento oggetto di questa tesi, i partecipanti hanno dovuto valutare lo stato di fatto dell’area di studio presentato attraverso tre viste tridimensionali e il rumore del traffico come background. Dopo, i soggetti hanno valutato altre tre condizioni acustiche con la riproposizione delle stesse viste tridimensionali, le quali consistevano in una riduzione del traffico ottenuta attraverso il posizionamento di una barriera anti rumore lungo la strada trafficata, e inoltre, nell’aggiunta di due tracce musicali come background del rumore del traffico. I brani scelti erano alcuni di quelli usati nell’esperimento nel 2015 che erano risultati la traccia più influente (musica classica: il Waltz dei fiori) e la meno influente (musica jazz: Creole Jazz). I risultati dell’analisi statistica (ANOVA) hanno dimostrato che la musica implementava la percezione legata alla sicurezza e il sentimento relativo alla social presence. In particolare, la musica jazz è stato lo stimolo che ha riportato risultati più elevati nella percezione di queste sensazioni.

Relatori: Arianna Astolfi, Elena Bo, Francesco Aletta
Soggetti: A Architettura > AD Bioarchitettura
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SA Acustica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4967
Capitoli:

Chapter 1-Introduction

References chapter 1

Chapter 2 -The State of Art

2.1. Soundscape concept

2.2 Soundscape analysis and evaluation

2.3 Planning of urban soundscape

2.4 Soundscape reproduction

2.5 Music effects in environment evaluation

2.5.1 Music effects on in-store shopping behaviour

2.5.2 Music effects during the meal

2.5.3 Music effects in the restaurants

2.5.4 Music effects in safety perception

2.6 Music and visual effects in environment evaluation

2.7 Brighton and Hove Experiments

2.8 References chapter 2

Chapter 3-Sheffleld Concourse Bridge: the previous research

3.1 Research design

3.2 Material and Procedure

3.3 Participants

3.4 Results

References chapter 3

Chapter 4-Preliminary Analyses

4.1. General Acoustic Properties

4.1.1 Apparent Absorption Factor

4.1.2 Reverberation Time

4.1.3 Sound pressure level, Clarity, Definition, Sound Strength Parameter and Speech transmission index

4.1.4 Scattering coefficient

4.2 Area

4.3 Model

4.4 Meteorological conditions

4.5 Materials

4.6 Calibration

4.6.1 Odeon Simulation

4.6.2 Calibration process description

4.7 Binaural impulse in Odeon software

4.8 References chapter 4

Chapter 5-Brief lighting analysis

5.1 Light

5.2 Public lighting system

5.3 Components of public lighting

5.3.1 Lamps

5.3.2 Photometric curves

5.3.3 Lamp frames

5.4 Lighting in the Concourse Bridge area

5.5 Light insertion in the 3D model

5.6. References chapter 5

Chapter 6-Design

6.1 Acoustic design

6.2 Acoustic Barrier description

6.3 Urban greenery description

6.4 Insertion of Barrier in the Concourse Bridge area

6.4.1. Acoustic barrier properties

6.5 Calibration of the traffic component

6.6 Insertion of the acoustic barrier in the points of view.

6.7 References chapter 6

Chapter 7-Test

7.1 Sense of hearing

7.2 Sound and auditory sensation

7.3 Sources and receivers

7.4 Selected stimuli for test

7.5 Convolution of stimuli

7.6 Optimization of convoluted stimuli

7.7 Anechoic Room

7. 8. Test structure

7. 9. Equipment

7.10. Participants

7.11 Questionnaire

References chapter 7

8.1 Confidence intervals

8.2 ANOVA analysis

8.3 Discussion of results

8.4 Other considerations about the results

8.5 References chapter 8

Chapter 9-Conclusion

Appendix

Chapter 4-Appendix

Chapter 8-Appendix

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