Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Mancini, Marta

Torino 2006 - Beijing 2022 : can the olympic event be an opportunity?

Rel. Michele Bonino. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta', 2016

Questa è la versione più aggiornata di questo documento.

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION

The thesis presents the analysis and comparison of two case studies in order to investigate how a great event such as the Winter Olympic Games can influence, affect, promote and foster the development of a territory.

The first city taken into consideration is Torino, Italy, where in 2006 the XX edition of the Winter Olympic Games was held. The second is Beijing that has been recently selected and will host the Winter edition in 2022. The aim ofthe thesis is to analyse both positive and negative aspects of the edition in Torino as well as promises and expectations of Beijing 2022 in order to propose some suggestions and guidelines to exchange with China's capital city and future host. Despite the political, economic, urban, cultural and social differences between the two countries, it has been possible to focus on the common aspects related to the Olympics.

The first chapter introduces the historical and urban context within which the two cities were selected and outlines similarities of their past. In 1980s the Fordist production approach entered a crisis and Torino needed a deep transformation. Few years after the adoption of the General Plan 1995, Torino was selected to host the Winter Olympic Games in 2006.The event was conceived as opportunity for local renovation, territorial cooperation and international promotion.

Almost ten years after Torino 2006, Beijing was selected as Host City, becoming the first to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics. Although General Urban Plans had been adopted in Beijing in 1992 and then 2004, pollution, traffic congestion, overcrowded population and low urban quality were never actually solved. Xi Jinping, nominated President of China in 2013, promoted as National Strategy the Integrated and Coordinated Development of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province. The objective of a wide territorial approach should lead to boost a more even distribution of resources among Beijing and the surrounding cities, relieving the capital from urban and social pressures. The Winter Olympic event is considered as a positive opportunity for infrastructures development, urban functions redistribution, environmental quality improvements and sport activities promotion.

The second chapter presents a comparison of the candidacy dossiers in order to identify expectations and promises of the two cities in relation to the Olympic event. After an initial analytical comparison a more critical comparison will focus on the singular aspects mentioned in the dossier. The aim will be to understand the weaknesses and strengths, the realistic and idealistic aspects of the candidature.

The third focuses on the sustainable aspects that the edition of Torino 2006 was able to guarantee in advance. Torino subscribed to many sustainable procedures recognized internationally. It adopted the principles of the Agenda 21 of the Olympic Movement and preceded some of the recommendations of the Agenda 20+20, recently published.

The fourth chapter analyses the Olympic legacy of Torino ten years after the event. It is possible to divide the material (linked to the Olympic facilities) and immaterial legacy. The latter is related to a wide range of factors. In the case of Torino, it possible to organize them on spatial scales of influence. The international image of Torino benefited a lot from the Olympics along with the upper valleys. They gained visibility, succeeded in enhancing the cultural tourism and organization of events. However territorial coordination was not strengthened nor influenced. Torino and its Alps still act separately and "midlands" struggle to boost local development. Although initial conceptualizations of identity integration between the urban and the mountain area, the link remained unsolved and weak. Some local actors of the Piedmont Region during meetings and interview helped to better understand the comprehensive situation left by the Games.

The fifth chapter introduces the evolution of Jing-Jin-Ji, the great region that is planned to comprehend Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province. It will count 130 million inhabitants and will support more even development of the territory through urban functions redistribution and the realization of advance infrastructures. The Olympic event is expected to help and accelerate the process.

The sixth part describes how the Olympic dream of Beijing 2022 came to reality and what procedures have started since the selection in July 2015. Moreover it proposes the description of the political and urban processes in the locality of Chongli, the town that will host part of the snow competitions, 200 km away from Beijing. The planners experts of the Tsinghua University of Beijing have always had important influence on the urban planning of Beijing and surrounding areas. Also in view of Beijing 2022 they will collaborate with the local political institutions of Chongli to develop general plans of the future Olympic venues. The final chapter aims to deduce some indications and recommendations from the experience of Torino in favour of the future in Beijing. It stresses the past mistakes from which China could learn and enhances the important tradition of local and mountain life, architecture and passion that has characterized Torino and the Alps since centuries.

Can the Olympic event be an opportunity for territorial development? The event itself it is generally not, but if included in long-term and sensitive comprehensive actions it have the potential to become a powerful engine and accelerator.

I also had the possibility to visit the future Olympic areas in the surroundings of Chongli and meet experts that will be in charge of the urban planning processes. It was a great and unique experience that helped me to see things under total different points of view.

Relatori: Michele Bonino
Soggetti: A Architettura > AF Edifici e attrezzature per il tempo libero, le attività sociali, lo sport
A Architettura > AO Progettazione
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta'
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4894
Capitoli:

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1. TORINO AND BEIJING: URBAN AND HISTORICAL CONTEXT AT THE MOMENT OF BIDDING

1.1.Torino: form the romans to the Olympics

1.1.1.Foundation of FIAT and the fordist period

1.1.2.The post-fordist period and Torino renovation

1.1.3.The Olympic system of Torino 2006

1.2.Beijing: a thousand-year old capital

1.2.1.the end of the Dynasties and the foundation of the Republic of China

1.2.2.Beijing's development after "open door" reform Conclusion

2.OLYMPIC EXPECTATIONS AND PROMISES: TORINO 2006 vs. BEIJING 2022

BIDDING DOSSIER

I VOLUME

2.1.1.Vision and overall concept

2.1.2.Legal aspects and public support

2.1.3.Sustainability

2.1.4.Finance and budgeting

II VOLUME

III VOLUME

2.1.5.Safety and medical services

2.1.6.Accomodation

2.1.7.Trasport

2.1.8.Media operations

CRITICAL ANALYSIS

I VOLUME

2.2.1.Vision and overall concept

2.2.2.Legal aspects and public support

2.2.3.Sustainability

2.2.4.Finance and budgeting

II VOLUME

III VOLUME

2.3.5.Safety and medical services

2.3.6.Accomodation

2.3.7.Trasport

2.3.8.Media operations

Conclusion

3.SUSTAINABILITY AND OLYMPICS

3.1.Sustainable development

3.2.Sustainable development & the Olympic movement

3.3.0lympic agendas

3.4.Torino 2006: Anticipation of sustainable approaches

Conclusion

4.TEN YEARS AFTER TORI NO 2006: LEGACY OF THE OLYMPIC GAMES

4.1.The legacy of the "Great events"

4.2.The material legacy of Torino 2006

4.3.The immaterial legacy of Torino 2006 - the urban area

4.4.The immaterial legacy of Torino 2006 - the mountain area

-Interview with Valentino Castellani

-Interview with Marco Bussone, UNCEM

-Interview with Valter Marin, Sestriere

-Interview with Eleonora Girodo, Valle diSusa. Tesori dell'arte e della cultura aplina

4.5.Area the (Winter) Olympic games useful?

Conclusion

5.JING-JIN-JI: NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

5.1.Topographical features and geographical relations

5.2.0rigins of the territorial approach

5.3.Evolution of spatial planning in Beijing region

5.3.1.The 1st Report 5.3.2_The 2st Report 5.3.3.The 3S| Report

5.4.Jing-Jin-Ji: Obstacles and strategic planning

5.5.Olympic games 2022, opportunity of regional development

Conclusion

6.STORIES FROM BEIJING

6.1.China's Olympic story

6.2.Hoping for the games

6.3.Preparing for the games

7.EXCHANGE OF OLYMPIC KNOW - HOW

7.1.Common aspects between Torino 2006 and Beijin 2022

7.2.Differences between Torino 2006 and Beijing 2022

7.3.Ten years afterTorino 2006

7.4.Six years before Beijing 2022

7.5.From Torino 2006 to Beijing 2022

CONCLUSIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliografia:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

About UNEP, Sport and the Environment, www.unep.org

Amnesty International, REPUBBLICA POPOLARE CINESE,Conto alla rovescia verso le Olimpiadi:le promesse mancate, www.amnesty.it, 2008 Associazione Torino Internazionale, Il Piano strategico della città neration in a post-industrial city, www.torinostrategica.it, Torino 2000

Ass.Torino Internazionale, Piano Strategico dell'area metropolitana di Torino, Direzione e obiettivi, www.torino-internazionale.org 2006 P. Anjun, Water Management in Beijing, www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org

Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games Supervisory Committee, Organisational Chart of the Organizing Committee, Vol.1, www.beijing-2022.cn, 2014

Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games Supervisory Committee, Organisational Chart of the Organizing Committee, Vol,2, www.beijing-2022.cn, 2014

Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games Supervisory Committee, Organisational Chart of the Organizing Committee, Vol.3, www.beijing-2022.cn, 2014

Beijing's Water Crisis: 1949-2008 Olympics, Probe International Beijing Group, 2008

G. H. Brundtland, Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org ,1987

L. Bobbio, C. Guala, Olimpiadi e grandi eventi : verso Torino 2006 : come una città può vincere o perdere, Carocci Editore, Roma 2002

P. Bondonio, E. Dansero,A. Mela, written by, Olimpiadi, oltre il 2006: Torino 2006, Secondo rapporto sui territori olimpie, Carocci Editore, Roma 2006

P. Bondonio, E. Dansero, C. Guala, A. Mela, S. Scamuzzi, written by, A Giochi fatti, Le eredità di Torino 2006, Carocci Editore, Roma 2007

P. Bondonio, C. Guala, written by, Gran Torino, Eventi, turismo, cultura, economia, Carocci Editore, Roma 2012

R. Bontempi, E. Camanni, R. Gambino, D. Jalla, Torino Città delle Alpi, TOROC, Torino, 2003

M. Boyle, Civic boosterism in the politics of local economic development - 'institutional positions' and 'strategic orientations' in the consumption of hallmark events, Environment and Planning A, Vol.11,1997

G. Brunetta, A. Peano, a cura di, Valutazione ambientale strategica : aspetti metodologici, procedurali e criticità : la I/AS del programma olimpico "Torino 2006", la prima sperimentazione nazionale conforme alla procedura comunitaria, Il sole 24 ore, Milano 2003

CCICED, Performance Evalutation on the Action Plan of Air Pollution Prevention and Control and Regional Coordination Mechanism, www.cciced.net, 2014

Chalkley, S. Essex, Urban transformation from hosting the Olympic Games, Centre d'Estudis Olimpics (UAB), Barcelona 2003

Chaolin, Y. Xiaohui, G.Jing, China's master planning system in transition: case study of Beijing, 46th ISOCARP Congress 2010 China Daily, Beijing urged to revise town planning, www.chinadaily.com.cn, 8th July 2003

Ciampi, G. Feola, P. Revellino, Sustainability report 2006, XX Olympic Winter Games Torino 2006, Lineastampa, Torino 2006 CIPRA, Torino 2006: Olimpiadi sostenibili?, www.cipra.org, 9th Febraury 2006 CIPRA, Alpi libere dalle Olimpiadi, www.cipra.org, 8th Febraury 2014

I.G.Cook, C. Gu,Y.D. Wei, Planning Beijing: socialist city, transitional city and global city, Urban Geography, vol.XXXVI, No. 6,Taylor and Francis Group, London 2015

F. Corrado, written by, Popolazione e cultura: le Alpi di oggi. Franco Angeli editore, Milano 2015

Corrado, G. Dematteris, A. Di Gioia, written by, Nuovi montanari. Abitare le Alpi nelXXI secolo,Franco Angeli editore, Milano 2012

Culicchia, Le mille rinascite di Torino, l'ex Capitale vero laboratorio italiano delle idee, La Stampa, Torino 9th Aprii 2016

Dansero, A. Mela, Olympic territorialization, The case of Torino 2006, Journal of Alpine Research, No. 95, voi. 3, www.revues.org, 2007

M. Dematteis, Castellani racconta la vera storia della pista da bob di Cesana-Pariol, www.dislivelli.eu, December 2010

A. De Rossi, la costruzione delle Alpi. Immagini e scenari del pittoresco alpino (1773-1914), Donzelli, Roma 2014

J. Drexhage, D. Murphy, Sustainable Development: form Brundtlandto Rio 2012, International Institute for Sustainable Development, New York 2010 Earth Summit 2002, www.en.wikipedia.org

Energy Development Strategy Action Plan (2014-2020), http://www.lse.ac.uk, November 2014

P. Furrer, Giochi Olimpici sostenibili: utopia o realtà?, Bollettino della Società Geografica Italiana, serie XII, volume VII,2002

Gennaro, L'eredità olimpica a dieci anni da Torino, https://piemonteinforma.atavist.com, Torino 10th Februray 2016

Governa, C. Rossignolo, S. Saccomani, Torino. Urban regeneration in a post-industrial city, JOURNAL OF URBAN REGENERATION AND RENEWAL, 2009

M. Gramellini, Le Olimpiadi che hanno cambiato Torino (e i torinesi), La Stampa, Torino 10th February 2016 C. Greco, C. Santoro, Pechino, La città nuova, SKIRA editore, Milano 2008 GRI, www.globalreporting.org/information/Pages/default.aspx

Hiller, Mega-Events, Urban Boosterism and Growth Strategies: An Analysis of the Objectives and Legitimations of the Cape Town 2004 Olympic Bid, in "International Journal Of Urban and Regional Research", no.24, vol.2,2000

Huang, Integration of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei setto be signature project of Xi Jinping's administration, www.scmp.com/news

www.china-brie-fing.com,25th June 2014

N.Y.Hsu, H. K. Leng, Emerging trends and innovation in sports marketing and management in Asia, IGI Global, Hershey 2015

Huang, Integration of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei set to be signature project of Xi Jinping's administration, www.scmp.com/news ww.china-briefing. com, 25th June 2014

International Olympic Committe, Olympic Agenda 2020,20+20 Recommendations, www.olympic.org, 2014

International Olympic Committee, OLYMPIC CHARTER, DidWeDo S.à.r.l., Lausanne, Switzerland, September 2015

International Olympic Committee, Sport and Environmental Commission, Olympic Movement's Agenda 21, www.olympic.org, 1992

IOC, Focus, Sport and sustainability, DidWeDo S.à.r.l., Lausanne, Switzerland, April 2011

IOC, Olympic Agenda 2020, Context and background, www.olympic.org, 2016

IOC, OlympicAgenda 2020,20+20 recommendations, www.olympic.org, 2014

IOC Sport and Environment Commission, Olympic Games and the environmentrequirements for candidates cities, www.olympic.org, 2003

IOC Sport and Environment Commission, Olympic Movement's Agenda 21: Sport for sustainable development, www.olympic.org, Seoul 1999

IOC, Sustainability through sport, Implementing the Olympic Movement's Agenda 21, www.olympic.org, 2012

I. Johnson, As Beijing Becomes a Supercity, the Rapid Growth Brings Pains, www.nytimes.com, 19th July 2015

W. Liangyong, Rehabilitating the Old City of Beijing; A Project in the Ju'Er Hutong Neighbourhood, UBC Press, Vancouver 1999

Li, Policy, Space and Governance: Lessons from Beijing, Department of Urban Planning and Management, School of Public Administration, Renmin University, Beijing 2014

Li, Policy, Space and Governance: Lessons from Beijing, School of Public Administration, Renmin University, Beijing 2014 L.M.Li, A.J. Dray-Norvey, H. Kong, Pechino, Storia di un città, Giulio Einaudi editore, Torino 2007

Myrholt, Greenings the Olympics, www.ourplanet.com, 1996

A. Massarutto, a cura di, Politiche per lo sviluppo sostenibile della montagna, Angeli, Milano 2008

Marketing del Territorio, Come finiscono i Giochi? Eredità, luci e ombre di Torino 2006, www.marketingdelterritorio.info, 16th March 2016 Making blue skies over Jing-Jin-Ji last, www.chinadaily.com.cn/, 21 st June 2016

A. Martina, Comunicare la città: it caso di Trino olimpica, Bruno Mondadori, Milano 2006

L. Mercalli, D. Cat Berrò, a cura di, L'innevamento naturale delle Alpi piemontesi e le condizioni meteorologiche favorevoli alla produzione di neve programmata, www.arpa.piemonte.gov.it, 2007

Olympic Games Bid Committee, Organisational Chart of Beijing 2008, Vol. 1, www.olympic.org/beijing-2008,2000

Organising Committee for the XX Olympic Winter Games Torino 2006, Final Report - XX Olympic Winter Games, LA84 Foundation, Los Angeles 2008

A. Peano, L'eredità di un grande evento. Olimpiadi Torino 2006, Associazione Italiana Scenze Regionali - AISRE, Bolzano 2007

Probe International Beijing Group, Beijing's Water Crisis, 1949 -2008 Olympics, www.chinaheritagequarterly.org, 2008

Programma Regionale delle Infrastrutture Turistiche e Sportive Piemonte 2006, www.regione.piemonte.it/archivio/opereacc/programma.htm

Provincia di Torino, Il Progetto Integrato di Area Torino 2006, Relazione illustrativa, www.http://www.comune.pinerolo.to.it

Provincia di Torino, Progetto "I ragazzi del 2006" www.provincia.torino.gov.it

L. Qin, Q&A: Why China's 'Jing-Jin-Ji' megacity risks repeating environmental errors of the past, www.chinadialogue.net, 7th October 2015

M. Robiglio, S. Guercio, I.Toussaint, Periferie partecipate, cinque casi di riqualificazione urbana a Torino (Italia), CIUDADES, 2004

Rosso, Torino: Policies and Actions at a Metropolitan Level, paper presented at the conference "La gouvernance Métropolitaine: Recherche de cohérence dans la compléxité", Montréal, 7-8 October 2004

Rio+20, United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/about.html M. Roche, Mega-Events and Modernity: Olympics and expos in the growth of global culture, Routledge, London 2000

X. Ren, Urban China, Polity Press, Cambridge 2013

Ries, The future of Chinese ski tourism, 1st Euro-Asian ski resorts conference Almaty, October 8th, 2013

Y. Ronghua, J. Bo, Y. Liu, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration offers new engines of economic growth, www.csstoday.com/ltem/2101 .aspx, 21st May 2015 Regione Piemonte, ptr Piano Territoriale Regionale, approved with DCR n. 122-29783,21 July 2011, www.regione.piemonte.it R. Radicioni, Torino: tra Piano e Mercato. Origine e affermazione del PRG del 1995, www.politichepiemonte.it 2015

R. Spencer, Beijing smog returns after Olympics, www.telegraph.co.uk, 21s,September 2008 Sustainability, www.olympic.org, 2016

A. Segre, S. Scamuzzi, written by, Aspettando le Olimpiadi: Torino 2006, Primo rapporto sui territori olimpie, Carocci Editore, Roma 2004

Struttura Torino 2006, Piano di Monitoraggio del Programma Olimpico, www.regione.piemonte.it/archivio/to2006/vas/monitoraggio.htm, 2002

The WTO is an organization for trade opening that establishes legal ground rules for international commerce, binding governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits

Y.Tang. K.R. Kunzman, The Evolution of Spatial Planning for Beijing, Informationen zur Raumentwicklung, 2008

The Chinese Dream Infuses Socialism with Chinese Characteristics with New Energy, www.chinacopyrightandmedia.wordpress.com, 6th May 2013

TOP, Fondazione 20 Marzo 2006, www.torinolympicpark.org, 2006

Torino: Associazione Torino 2006, Torino 2006 candidate city, Vol. Green Card, Torino 1999

Torino: Associazione Torino 2006, Torino 2006 candidate city, Vol.1, Torino 1999

Torino: Associazione Torino 2006, Torino 2006 candidate city, Vol.2, Torino 1999, p. 204

Torino: Associazione Torino 2006, Torino 2006 candidate city, Vol.3, Torino 1999

Torino Internazionale, II Piano Strategico della città, www.torinostrategica.it, 2000

TOROC, Carta degli Intenti, www.consiglieraparitatorino.it, 2002

J.Tarradellas, The Olympic Movement and the environement, Centre d'Estudis Olimpics, Universität Autonoma de Barcelona 2003

UN, Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Principle 4, www.unep.org, Stockholm 1972

A. Winkler, Torino City Report, CASE Report 41, London School of Economics and Political Science, London 2007

J. Wang, Beijing Record, A Physical and Political History of Planning Modern Beijing, World Scientific Publishing, Danvers, 2011

www.al.china-embassy.org/eng/zggk/t514665.htm

www.antidoping.piemonte.itv

J. Wang, Beijing Record, A physical and political history of planning modern Beijing, World Scientific Publishing Co.Pte.Ltd., Singapore 2011

World Economic Forum, The future of Urban Development Initiative: Dalian and Zhangjiakou Champion Cityt Strategy, www.webforum.org, Switzerland, 2014

L.Wu, Research on the rural and urban spatial development planning for the greater Beijing Region, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing 2002

L. Wu, The third report on the rural and urban spatial development planning study for the capital region (Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei). Tsinghua University Press, Beijing 2013?

Wu, Planning for growth, Urban and Regional Planning in China, Routledge, New York 2015

R.Yao and E. Liu,Jing-Jin-Ji: The Biggest City in China You've Probably Never Heard Of, www.china-briefing.com/news/, 11th July 2014

R.Yu, B.Jin, L. Yang, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei integration offers new engines of economic growth, www.csstoday.com/ltem/2101 .aspx, 21st May 2015

Zhang, Beijing: Enough snow for 2022 Winter Olympics, www.china.org.cn, July 2,2015

Z. Zhenxing, Olympics are good news for regional plan, aking blue skies over Jing-Jin-Ji last, www.europe.chinadaily.com.cn, 18th September 2015 J. Zhu, Architecture of modern China, Routledge, London, 2009

W. Zonneveld, B.Waterhout, Visions on territorial cohesion,Town and Planning Review, No.76, vol.1,2005

WEBLIOGRAPHY

www.nytimes.com

www.olympic.org

www.piemonteinforma.atavist.com

www.provincia.torino.gov.it

www.politichepiemonte.it

www.regione.piemonte.it

www.revues.org

www.scmp.com

www.sustainabledevelopment.un.org

www.telegraph.co.uk

www.torino-internazionale.org

www.torinolympicpark.org

www.torinostrategica.it

www.uncsd2012.org

www.unep.org

www.webforum.org

Modifica (riservato agli operatori) Modifica (riservato agli operatori)