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Dell'Anna , Federico

Evaluating co-benefits of nZED projects : methodological approach and experimentation in the city of Turin.

Rel. Stefano Paolo Corgnati, Marta Carla Bottero, Cristina Becchio. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta', 2015

Abstract:

Many studies have focused their attention on the concept of zero energy, presented by the European Directive on the energy performance of buildings. These studies are often related to a single building: only a few of them have verified the advantages of its application to a larger scale.

Energy savings and other more tangible and monetary benefits of green or high performance building have long been apparent in business. Although some of these green building initiatives are expensive to implement, tangible benefits alone may not offset the initial costs of the projects, especially when considering shorter time horizons. Fortunately, intangible benefits of green building also exist, and for the promotion of such projects must be taken into account as co-benefits.

This thesis aims to investigate the "nearly Zero Energy District" (nZED) concept, and tries to propose a calculation method, starting from two cost and benefit analyses (CBA), one developed by EPRI in USA, and the other one by JRC in Europe about Smart Grid projects. Both of them take in consideration three main topics: the costs, the monetary and not benefits.

The second main challenges of this thesis is to try to monetize projects qualitative benefits, and to create a single evaluation index for monetary and not benefits, in order to include them in a single calculation procedure.

In the end, selected a neighbourhood in Turin, it will be transformed into a nearly zero energy district, thanks to an energetic retrofit and, following this methodological approach, four different scenarios will be compared in order to identify the best solution from an "socio-economic" point of view, by SROI analysis.

Keywords: nearly Zero Energy District; Energetic retrofit; non-monetary benefit.

Relatori: Stefano Paolo Corgnati, Marta Carla Bottero, Cristina Becchio
Soggetti: A Architettura > AD Bioarchitettura
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SH Fisica tecnica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta'
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4464
Capitoli:

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY

1.2 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS

2. NEARLY ZERO ENERGY CONCEPT

2. 1 DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU

2.2 THE TECHNICAL DEFINITION

2.3 BOUNDARIES OF NEARLY ZERO ENERGY

2.3.1 Physical boundary

3. FROM nZEB TO NEARLY ZERO ENERGY DISTRICTS

3.1 SIX KEY CHALLENGES FOR nZED

3.2 HOW TO ACHIEVE THE nZED TARGET

3.2.1 Storage

3.2.2 Smart grid

3.2.3 Micro-grids, building integration and electric vehicles

3.3 SUSTAINABLE DISTRICT REFERENCE CASES: CONCERTO PROJECT

3.3.1 Montieri: geothermal energy for DH

3.3.2 Alessandria: CONCERTO al Piano

3.3.3 Turin: improving the life quality by renovating council houses in Arquata district

4. COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

4.1 CBA: INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW

4.1.1 Financial Analysis

4.1.2 Economic analysis

4.2 COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS OF SMART GRID PROJECTS: EPRI

VS JRC

4.2.1 EPRI/DOE CBA methodology for Smart Grid demonstration projects

4.2.2 Beneficiaries

4.2.3 Cost Benefit Analysis by EPRI

4.2.4 Assessment methodology for Smart Grid Projects proposed by JRC

4.2.5 Cost Benefit Analysis by JRC

4.2.6 Sensitivity analysis

5. CO-BENEFITS

5.1 IDENTIFYING THE NON-ENERGY BENEFITS

5.2 IEA STUDIES ABOUT EFFICIENCY ENERGY BENEFITS

5.3 QUALITATIVE IMPACT ANALYSIS BYJRC

5.3.1 Externalities and social impact

6. MONETIZE THE CO-BENEFITS

6.1 METHODOLOGIES FOR CO-BENEFITS QUANTIFICATION AND EVALUATION

6.1.1 Energy Savings

6.1.2 Energy security

6.1.3 GHG emissions reduction

6.1.4 Health Benefits

6.1.5 Green jobs

6.1.6 Increase value of real estate

6.1.7 Reduction of electric energy interruption

6.1.8 Revenue from sale of the electricity by renewable source

7. CASE STUDY

7.1 A sustainable district in Turin

7.1.1 Characterization of the district and the building stock

7.2 SCENARIO ANALYSIS

7.2.1 Scenario 1

7.2.2 Scenario 2

7.2.3 Scenario 3

7.2.4 Scenario 4

7.3 ENERGETIC REFURBISHMENT

7.3.1 The building: passive solutions

7.3.2 The building: the electrical components

7.3.3 The district: supplying thermal and electric energy by District Heating (DH)

7.3.4 The district: street lighting

7.3.5 The district: supplying electricity by photovoltaic

7.4 IDENTIFY AND QUANTIFY THE COSTS

7.4.1 Investment costs

7.4.2 Energy costs

7.4.3 Disposal costs

7.4.4 Maintenance costs

7.4.5 Main characteristics of scenarios

7.4.6 Economic comparison of scenarios

7.4.7 Environmental comparison of scenarios

7.5 COMPARE COSTS AND BENEFITS

7.5.1 Sensitivity analysis

8. CONCLUSION

8.1 CONSIDERATIONS

8.2 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

REFERENCES

ANNEX

ANNEX 1 - EVALUATION OF POWER INSTALLED

ANNEX 2 - Web advertisements

ANNEX 3 - Listing prices descriptive statistics

ANNEX 4 - CBA OF SCENARIO 1

ANNEX 5 - CBA OF SCENARIO 2

ANNEX 5 - CBA OF SCENARIO 3

ANNEX 7 - CBA OF SCENARIO 4

Bibliografia:

INTRODUCTION

EPBD 2010/31/EU (2010). DIRECTIVE 2010/31/EU OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings. T.E.P.A.O.T. .COUNCIL. Official Journal of the European Union.

CHAPTER 2

Atanasiu,B. (2011). Principles for Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings. BPIE, Bruxelles.

Kurnitski, J., et al. (2013). How to define nearly net zero energy buildings nZEB - REHVA proposal for uniformed national implementation of EPBD recast. REHVA.

Sartori I., et al. (2012). Net zero energy buildings: a consistent definition framework. Energy and Buildings.

CHAPTER 3

Anzioso F. et al. (2012), POLYCITY Energy Network in Sustainable City, Kramer.

Caragliu A. et al, (2011), Chiara Del Bo & Peter Nijkamp, "Smart Cities in Europe", Journal of Urban Technology.

EC Task Force for Smart Grids (2010). "Expert Group 1: Functionalities of smart grid and smart meters"

IEA (2008). Empowering variable renewables - options for exible electricity systems. International Energy Agency, IEA/OECD.

IEA (2009). Cities, Towns and Renewable Energy - Yes In My Front Yard. International Energy Agency. Paris.

Krewitt W, (2008). Integration of renewable energy into future energy systems. Proc. IPCC scoping meeting for Special Report on Renewable Energy and Climate Change, Lübeck, Germany, January.

Marique, A., et al. (2013). From zero-energy building to zero-energy neighbourhood : urban form and mobility matter. Proceedings of the International PLEA Conference 2013.

Francesco Anzioso et al. (2012), POLYCITY Energy Network in Sustainable City, Kramer.

US DOE (2009). United States Department of Energy http://www.oe.energy.gov/smartgrid.html

CHAPTER 4

EC -JRC (2012). Guidelines for conducting a cost-benefit analysis of Smart Grid projects. Report EUR 25246 EN.

EPRI (2010). Methodological Approach for estimating the Benefits and Costs of Smart Grid Demonstration Projects. Palo Alto.

EU Guidelines (2014). Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects: Structural Funds, Cohesion Fundand Instrument for Pre-Accession. Brussels.

CHAPTER 5

IEA (2011). Evaluating the co-benefits of low-income energy efficiency programmes. Report from Dublin Workshop. International Energy Agency, Paris.

IEA (2012). Spreading the net: the multiple benefits of energy efficiency improvements. International Energy Agency, Paris.

CHAPTER 6

Bertazzi A., et al (2005). The use of customer outage cost surveys in policy decision-making: the Italian experience in regulating quality of electricity supply, 18th Cl RED.

Bottero M., Bravi M. (2014). Valutazione dei benefici connessi al risparmio energetico degli edifici: un approccio econometrico. GEAM.

Copenhagen Economics (2012), Multiple benefits of investing in energy efficient renovation of buildings - Impact on Public Finances.

DG Energy (2010), "EU energy trends in 2030". Update 2009.

DG Energy (2014), "Energy trends up to 2050". Update 2013.

Janssen R., Staniaszek D. (2012). How Many Jobs? A Survey of the Employment Effects of Investment in Energy Efficiency of Buildings. The Energy Efficiency Industrial Forum.

Liddell, C., Morris, C. & Lagdon, S. (2011), Kirklees Warm Zone: The project and its impacts on well-being.

Threlfall, A. (2011). Understanding the costs and benefits of fuel poverty interventions: A pragmatic economic evaluation from Greater Manchester. Greater Manchester Public Health Practice Unit.

Ùrge-Vorsatz D., et al., (2010), Employment Impacts of a Large-Scale Deep Building Energy Retrofit Programme in Hungary, Central European University, Budapest.

CHAPTER 7

Corrado V., et al (2014). Building Typology Brochure - Italy. Politecnico di Torino.

Dipartimento di Energia del Politecnico di Milano (2012). Costi di produzione di energia elettrica da fonti rinnovabili, Politecnico di Milano.

Dipartimento di Energia del Politecnico di Torino (2015). Progetto Erre. Politecnico di Torino.

Tecnoapi, Ecofys & Golder Associates (2006). Studio sul teleriscaldamento in provincial di Torino - Stato di fatto e potenzialità disviluppo. Provincia di Torino.

UNI/TS 11300 - 1 (2008), calculation of heating energy demand of the building;

UNI/TS 11300 - 2 (2008), calculation of primary energy demand and of the efficiency of heating systems and systems for the production of DHW (Domestic Hot Water);

UNI/TS 11300 - 3 (2010), calculation of cooling energy demand and of the efficiency of cooling systems;

UNI/TS 11300 - 4 (2010), use of renewable energy source and alternative heating/cooling systems.

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