Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Ceretti, Gualtiero

Torino e l'effetto "isola di calore" : un modello per una progettazione urbanistica sostenibile.

Rel. Guglielmina Mutani. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile, 2015

Abstract:

INTRODUZIONE

[…] Il lavoro eseguito si è diviso in due parti sostanzialmente: una prima parte di analisi in cui sono stati calcolati i diversi fattori che influenzano la temperatura dell’aria e le sue micro variazioni a Torino; una seconda parte dove sono stati analizzati questi fattori e sono state fatte delle supposizioni e delle ipotesi per creare un modello da estendere su tutta Torino al fine di calcolare il rapporto tra i fattori, quali LST, albedo e i parametri di pianificazione urbanistica, e la temperatura dell’aria.

Il capitolo introduttivo serve a far luce e a spiegare il fenomeno dell’Isola di calore entrando nel dettaglio e distinguendo le varie tipologie esistenti, le caratteristiche di ognuna, le cause e gli effetti che hanno sul clima urbano. Particolare attenzione verrà prestata ai fattori che influenzano o che sono strettamente correlati all’isola di calore urbana, come: LST (Land Surface Temperature), fattore di albedo o radianza, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), densità edilizia, e altri ancora.

Nel secondo capitolo vengono spiegate e analizzate le diverse tecniche di raccolta dei dati necessari per lo studio delle UHI: il telerilevamento basato su immagini acquisite tramite i satelliti.

L’attenzione verrà focalizzata su due programmi satellitari, Landsat 8 e Aster, che si occupano di acquisizione di immagini con diverse risoluzioni, ma entrambi con bande termiche necessarie al calcolo della LST (temperatura superficiale). Verranno introdotte e spiegate le principali differenze tra immagini aeree e telerilevate, approfondendo i diversi campi di utilizzo.

Nel capitolo terzo, si entrerà nel merito dell’analisi vera e propria delle immagini acquisite precedentemente, spiegando e analizzando i singoli passaggi effettuati tramite il programma di analisi ArcGis 10.3. Grazie a questo programma di elaborazione immagini sono stati calcolati i diversi fattori descritti nel capitolo 1. Le operazioni eseguite e i diversi passaggi del programma saranno esplicitati tramite equazioni e immagini tratte dal programma stesso.

Il quarto capitolo sarà strutturato in due parti: la prima, in cui si parla dei dati ottenuti dall’analisi delle immagini aster e Landsat, facendo un confronto tra i risultati a cui si arriva partendo da immagini provenienti da programmi spaziali diversi; la seconda, invece, sarà la parte fondamentale della tesi, ovvero lo studio dei dati ottenuti nelle sezioni di censimento che ospitano le 7 stazioni metereologiche di Torino, andando ad analizzare i singoli aspetti e fattori che fan sì che le temperature percepite nell’arco di pochi chilometri siano così differenti l’una dall’altra. La parte fondamentale sarà l’elaborazione di un modello attraverso cui è possibile calcolare la temperatura dell’aria in funzione dei parametri di pianificazione urbana, dell’albedo e della LST. Questo modello se verificato potrà essere utile in fase di progettazione ai fini di rendere più sostenibile lo sviluppo urbano.

Il quinto capitolo è la parte conclusiva del lavoro di tesi in cui verranno tratte delle conclusioni sul lavoro svolto sulla città di Torino. Saranno analizzate le diverse applicazioni del modello, che inizialmente sarà applicato su tutta la città di Torino per verificare la presenza di isole di calore, successivamente verranno scelte due/tre sezioni di censimento su cui verrà verificato come varia la temperatura in base al modificarsi dei parametri di pianificazione urbanistica.

Il sesto capitolo, coincide con la parte conclusiva del lavoro svolto e riguarderà una serie di interventi di mitigazione delle isole di calore, utili per ridurre l’intensità delle UHI e far diminuire le temperature dell’aria in ambiente urbano.

Relatori: Guglielmina Mutani
Soggetti: S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SD Computer software
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SH Fisica tecnica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4398
Capitoli:

INDICE

INTRODUZIONE

1. URBAN HEAT ISLAND (UHI) - ISOLA DI CALORE URBANA

1.1. Il fenomeno

1.2. Tipologie di Isole di calore

1.2.1. AUHI - Isola di calore atmosferica

1.2.2. SUHI - Isola di calore superficiale

1.2.3. SUHI - Isola di calore del sottosuolo - subsurface UHI

1.3. Le cause dell’isola di calore

1.4. Influenza sul bilancio energetico

1.5.1 fattori correlati alle UHI

1.5.1. LST - Land Surface Temperatrue

1.5.2. Fattore di albedo

1.5.3. Aree verdi e vegetazione

1.5.4. Canyon urbani e morfologia urbana

1.5.5. Inquinamento e calore antropogenico

1.5.6. Sintesi

2. IL TELERILEVAMENTO - THERMAL REMOTE SENSING

2.1. Nascita e generalità

2.1.1. La trasmissione del calore

2.1.2. EM - Spettro elettromagnetico

2.1.3. Le finestre atmosferiche

2.1.4. La variazione di temperatura diurna

2.2. Leggi della radiazione nell’infrarosso termico

2.2.1. Il corpo nero

2.2.2. Legge di Plank

2.2.3. Legge di Stefan e Boltzmann

2.2.4. Legge di Wien

2.3.1 parametri principali del telerilevamento termico

2.3.1. La temperatura radiante

2.3.2. L’emissività

2.4. Programmi spaziali utilizzati nel Telerilevamento Termico

2.4.1. La risoluzione e l’importanza nelle immagini termiche

2.4.2. Caratteristiche orbitali delle piattaforme satellitari

2.4.3. Tipologie di acquisizione nel TIR

2.4.4. Tipologie di acquisizione nel TIR

3. METODOLOGIA - RACCOLTA E ANALISI DATI

3.1. Il caso studio - Torino

3.2. Raccolta dei dati

3.3. Analisi dei dati

3.3.1. LST da elaborazione dati Landsat 8

3.3.2. LST da elaborazione dati ASTER L1B

3.3.3. Fattore di albedo (A) da elaborazione dati ASTER L1B

3.3.4. Calcolo parametri di pianificazione urbanistica

4. ANALISI DEI DATI - FORMULAZIONE DI UN MODELLO

4.1. Premesse

4.2. Parametri che influenzano la temperatura dell’aria

4.3. Formulazione di un modello

4.3.1. Campo di applicazione

4.3.2. Sviluppo e formulazione di un modello

4.3.2.1. Calcolo LST in funzione dei parametri di pianificazione urbanistica

4.3.2.2. Calcolo T aria in funzione della LST calcolata

4.3.2.3. Calcolo semplificato LST in funzione dei parametri di pianificazione urbanistica

4.3.2.4. Calcolo T aria in funzione dei parametri di pianificazione urbanistica

4.3.2.5. Calcolo semplificato T aria in funzione dei parametri di pianificazione urbanistica

4.3.3. Sintesi e riflessioni

5. APPLICAZIONI DEL MODELLO

5.1. Applicazione del modello in fase pre progettuale: mappatura di Torino

5.2. Applicazione del modello in fase post progettuale

5.3. Sintesi e riflessioni

6. INTERVENTI DI MITIGAZIONE UHI

6.1. Tetti freddi - Cool Roofs

6.2. Pavimentazioni fredde - Cool pavements

6.3. Aree verdi e vegetazione

6.4. Tetti verdi - Green Roofs

CONCLUSIONI

BIBLIOGRAFIA

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S. MAGLI ET AL. , Dynamic analysis of the heat released by tertiary buildings and theeffects of urban heat island mitigation strategiesS, Energy and Buildings, (2015)

ANNA LAURA PISELLOA AND FRANCO COTANA, Thermal-energy and environmental impact of cool clay tiles for residential buildings in Italy, Procedía Engineering, N 118, (2015): pp. 530-537

N. DEBBAGE, J.M. SHEPHERD, The urban heat island effect and city contiguity, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, N 54, (2015): pp. 181-194

N. KALOUSTIAN, Y. DIAB, Effects of urbanization on the urban heat island in Beirut, Urban Climate, (2015)

M.F. SHAHIDAN ET AL., An evaluation of outdoor and building environment cooling achieved through combination modification of trees with ground materials, Building and Environment, N 58, (2015): pp. 245-257

S. GRACIK ET AL. , Effect of urban neighborhoods on the performance of building cooling systems, Building and Environment, N 90, (2015): pp. 15-29

Z.T. Al, C.M. Mak. , From street canyon microclimate to indoor environmental quality in naturally ventilated urban buildings: issues and possibilities for improvement, Building and Environment, (2015)

F.J. FERNÁNDEZ ET AL. , Optimal location of green zones in metropolitan areas to control the urban heat island, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, N 289, (2015): pp. 412- 425

T. BERGER ET AL. , Impacts of climate change upon cooling and heating energy demand of office buildings in Vienna, AustriaTania, Energy and Buildings, N 80, (2015): pp. 517-530

M. SANTAMOURIS ET AL. , On the impact of urban heat island and global warming on the power demand and electricity consumption of buildings - A review, Energy and Buildings, N 98, (2015): pp. 119-124

M. DABAIEH ET AL. , Reducing cooling demands in a hot dry climate: A simulation studyfor non-insulated passive cool roof thermal performance inresidential buildings, Energy and Buildings,, N 89, (2015): pp. 142-152

F. SALATA ET AL. , How high albedo and traditional buildings' materials and vegetationaffect the quality of urban microclimate. A case study, Energy and Buildings, N 99, (2015): pp. 32-49

M.-T. HOELSCHER ET AL., Quantifying cooling effects of facade greening: Shading, transpirationand insulation, Energy and Buildings, (2015)A.G. TOUCHAEI, Y. WANG, Characterizing urban heat island in Montreal (Canada)-Effect of urban morphology", Sustainable Cities and Society, (2015): pp. 01-08

S. MAGLI ET AL. , Dynamic analysis of the heat released by tertiary buildings and theeffects of urban heat island mitigation strategiesS, Energy and Buildings, (2015)

ANNA LAURA PISELLOA AND FRANCO COTANA, Thermal-energy and environmental impact of cool clay tiles for residential buildings in Italy, Procedía Engineering, N 118, (2015): pp. 530-537

N. DEBBAGE, J.M. SHEPHERD, The urban heat island effect and city contiguity, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, N 54, (2015): pp. 181-194

N. KALOUSTIAN, Y. DIAB, Effects of urbanization on the urban heat island in Beirut, Urban Climate, (2015)

M.F. SHAHIDAN ET AL., An evaluation of outdoor and building environment cooling achieved through combination modification of trees with ground materials, Building and Environment, N 58, (2015): pp. 245-257

S. GRACIK ET AL. , Effect of urban neighborhoods on the performance of building cooling systems, Building and Environment, N 90, (2015): pp. 15-29

Z.T. Al, C.M. Mak. , From street canyon microclimate to indoor environmental quality in naturally ventilated urban buildings: issues and possibilities for improvement, Building and Environment, (2015)

F.J. FERNÁNDEZ ET AL. , Optimal location of green zones in metropolitan areas to control the urban heat island, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, N 289, (2015): pp. 412- 425

T. BERGER ET AL. , Impacts of climate change upon cooling and heating energy demand of office buildings in Vienna, AustriaTania, Energy and Buildings, N 80, (2015): pp. 517-530

M. SANTAMOURIS ET AL. , On the impact of urban heat island and global warming on the power demand and electricity consumption of buildings - A review, Energy and Buildings, N 98, (2015): pp. 119-124

M. DABAIEH ET AL. , Reducing cooling demands in a hot dry climate: A simulation study for non-insulated passive cool roof thermal performance inresidential buildings, Energy and Buildings,, N 89, (2015): pp. 142-152

F. SALATA ET AL. , How high albedo and traditional buildings' materials and vegetation affect the quality of urban microclimate. A case study, Energy and Buildings, N 99, (2015): pp. 32-49

M.-T. HOELSCHER ET AL., Quantifying cooling effects of facade greening: Shading, transpiration and insulation, Energy and Buildings, (2015)

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