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Lepore, Federica and Kostara Konstantinou, Eirini

Ancient theatres : machines designed for listening : a scenary proposal for the optimization of the passive acoustics for the ancient theatre of Tyndais.

Rel. Arianna Astolfi, Nikolaos Barkas, Elena Bo. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta', 2015

Abstract:

Prologue

This thesis is related to the space of theatron. Although etymologically the word theatron means the space from where you can see, and so the visual constitutes a fundamental part of the dramatic experience, the nature of the theatre seems to be more complex. The sound, just like the visual, is fundamental for the integration of each spectator and the de-codification of the specific cultural message, product from each historical period. The ancients, in order to obtain the global integration of the human being into the theatre system, translate these needs into various elements. View and hearing (non selective) or better listening (selective) are essential in this process.

The ancient theatre favors the aggregation of the spectators around the plays, ensuring thus the optimum sound distribution and, consequently, contributing to the creation of an impressive acoustic sensation. The ancient engineers focused to the phenomena of reflection and reverberation. In those buildings, problems such as the architectural composition and form, the visual and acoustics, static and location, were resolved with simplicity and entirety. Several disciplines such as architecture, archeology and acoustics were interrelated to serve this kind of entertainment. Gradually, the theatre became the space where drama was performed during the ancient times. That means that within the theatrical space another one was evolved, meaning the scenic space. (1) This scenic space has been transformed many times through the passage of time. The Greek theatres as a response to a network of preexistent spatial relationships underwent a process that defined their architectural components. They can be classified in several types, such as the Minoan, the Pre- Aeschylean, the Classic, the Hellenistic and the Roman types (2). During this evolution the development of the scene building was the most evolved but unfortunately in most cases only the ruins of its footings still survived. This study is focused on the evaluation of the effectiveness of the scene building, as the theatrical space which hosts the speech.

The first part of the present research refers to the evolution of the theatre in antiquity, revealing its connection with the social situation of each period and its direct reflections on the architectural building of the theatre. This part serves as the basis of our following analysis. Particular attention has been paid to the evolution process of the scenic building. The next part explores the researches of Fr. Canac, headed the Center of Scientific Industrial and Maritime Research of Marseille, in the ancient theatres. Its geometrical method is used in order to propose scenery which would improve the acoustic conditions and provide guidelines for the scenery design in the ancient theatres. Finally the generic scenery proposal is tested through mathematical calculations, computer simulations (Odeon acoustics 13.1) and listening tests.

The principal aims of the study are:

(a) to investigate the scenery evolution of the theatre and restitute the most suitable form of scenery for the theatrical space. Scenery must respect the purpose of each theatrical space. In particular in the ancient theatres where drama plays were born, the scenery design must focalized on speech requirements.

(b) to examine the acoustic importance of the theatrical elements (cavea orchestra, parodoi and in particular the scenic elements) for the completion of the scenic design enabling the reproduction of a passive acoustic function. In account of this guidelines, useful for the designers, are provided.

At this point is important to underline the boundaries which this research must respect. Ancient theatres are monuments, that have survived through centuries of history. Therefore, our only right is their protection for future generations. The restoring of the ancient theaters (and their probable contemporary use) becomes more complex if one is searching for the original theatrical form of each period and, subsequently the interpretation of the functional requirements for the revival of the ancient drama. Additionally, other difficulties, such as the lack of comprehensive researches on the field, make the task of the contemporary designer even more difficult.

The guidelines provided from by this study intent to comply the harmonic development of the scenery with the rest of the building, in an attempt to respect the nature, function and particularly the current situation of these monuments. So it will be a benefit for the designers as also a positive input which is hoped to motivate and guide their creativity in a more sustainable way.

Relatori: Arianna Astolfi, Nikolaos Barkas, Elena Bo
Soggetti: A Architettura > AF Edifici e attrezzature per il tempo libero, le attività sociali, lo sport
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SA Acustica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta'
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4390
Capitoli:

01. PROLOGUE

02. SOCIETY, THEATRE AND ARCHITECTURE

02.1 MINOIAN TYPE _ THE BIRTH

02.2 PROCLASSIC TYPE

02.3 CLASSIC TYPE

02.4 HELLENISTIC TYPE

02.5 Greek-Roman Type _ Delos 250 BC

02.6 ROMAN TYPE

03. PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS

03.1 THE EAR AND THE PERCEPTION OF SOUND

03.2 THE FUNDAMENTAL LAWS JNTENSITY, DISTANCE, TEMPERATURE, WIND

03.3 SOUND'S PROPAGATION PHENOMENA_REFLECTION, ECHO, REVERBERATION

03.4 INTELLIGIBILITY AND SPEECH REQUIREMENTS

04. ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE THEATRICAL SPACE

04.1 SCHEME OF THE ANCIENT THEATRE

04.2 REQUIRES OF THE SPECTATORS. COMPREHENSION

04.3 REQUIRES OF THE ACTOR. THE ENVIRONMENT

04.4 TEATRE OF TYNDARIS

5. RESEARCH METHOLOGY

05.1 FRANÇOIS CANAC'S RESEARCH

05.2 APPLICATION OF THE CANAC'S EQUATION FOR THE FORMULATION OF THE SCENERY PROPOSALS

05.3 ASSESSMENT OF THE "FINAL SCENERY" PROPOSAL

05.4 CONCLUSION AND GUIDELINES

06. ACOUSTICAL SIMULATIONS

06.1 TECNIQUES OF ACOUSTICAL SIMULATIONS

06.2 ACOUSTICAL OBJECTIVE PARAMETERS

06.3 Description and analysis of IN SITU acoustical measurements

06.4 THEATRE MODELLING

06.5 MODEL CALIBRATION

06.6 PARAMETER ANALYSIS

06.7 DIRECT TO REVERBERANT ENERGY RATIO_DRR

06.8 SIMULATIONS

06.9 RESULTS ANALYSIS

07. LISTENING TESTS

07.1 AURALIZED SOUNDTRACKS

07.2 TEST ORGANIZATION

07.3 RESULTS

08. CONCLUSIONS

09. GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS

10. BIBLIOGRAFY

Bibliografia:

10. Bibliografy

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