Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Barreto Castillo, Heimary S.

A new approach for venezuelan social housing in the urban border of Simón Bolívar park.

Rel. Matteo Robiglio, Maya Suarez. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta', 2015

Abstract:

INTRODUCTION

The term social housing in Europe has two possible connotations according to the 2012 edition of the “Encyclopedia of Housing”. The first refers to all types of housing that receive some form of public subsidy or social assistance, either directly or indirectly, which can include tax relief on mortgage interest, tax shelters for homeownership, subsidies to builders, depreciation allowances for investments in residential properties, or below-cost provision of collective public services (roads, electricity, water or sewers) for housing. This definition is very inclusive, namely whenever the private housing stock receives some public subsidies, it should be included in the social housing sector. The second definition largely refers to traditional public housing, namely housing subsidized by the state and social rented housing, but also includes new forms of publicly supported and non-market housing, such as cooperatives, rent-geared-to-income, limited-dividend and non-profit housing provided by social agencies, community groups, non-profit private firms and political organizations other than governments. Social housing has its origin in England in the late eighteenth century as an initiative of factories in response to overcrowding, unsanitary conditions and disorder in which the working class was living at that time. Later in the first half of the twentieth century the concept of social housing (for workers and middle class) is centralized by the governments of Europe in response to devastation caused by the world wars and the need to provide housing for many people. From the second half of the twentieth century differences between Western and Eastern Europe in management of social housing becomes more evident because differences between economic models (Capitalism and Communism respectively). While in the West social housing diversified and devolved to include previously excluded groups (poor, disabled, etc.), in Eastern Europe housing construction was highly centralized, politicized and inefficient to respond to all sectors of society. With the collapse of communism in the nineties, these countries (after a heavily process of privatizations) have been gradually incorporated into the construction of social housing as in the rest of Europe. Although Venezuelan social housing was very influenced by European concepts and techniques, the reasons why it was begun were radically different. In the early twentieth century Venezuela passed from being an agricultural country into a major oil exporter. The new industrial and economic centers led to a process of internal (from rural to urban) and external migration (from several European countries). The cities were not prepared for this rapid growth, so people began to build informal housing. The belated response of governments was social housing construction. However, despite efforts the demand was always greater than supply, resulting in the establishment of barrios in the major cities of the country. In the first decade of the 21st century social housing construction was the lowest in the history of Venezuela, despite having a social-communist government. For this reason in 2011 the same government promised to repay the “historic debt” of housing for the poorest creating a social housing plan called “Gran Mision Vivienda Venezuela” (GMVV). This plan wants ending the housing deficit by 2019. Despite being a very ambitious project, which handles many resources, this has been criticized by experts from different areas. From an economic point of view, it has many similarities to social housing applied in the former communist Europe, being highly centralized (government-dependent) and politicized. In addition non-governmental organizations claim that they are creating ghettos because in practice only people with low resources related to government policies can access to this houses. Finally at the architectural level many of the projects do not take into account the context in which are built and are of very low quality construction. In this project i propose a social housing complex, taking into account open building criteria, differences between Venezuelan family organizations and it is directed not only to the poor but also to the middle class to avoid the current social segregation.

Relatori: Matteo Robiglio, Maya Suarez
Soggetti: A Architettura > AO Progettazione
U Urbanistica > UK Pianificazione urbana
U Urbanistica > UL PVS Paesi in via di sviluppo
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura costruzione citta'
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4204
Capitoli:

Summary

Acknowledgements

Introduction

Caracas Housing

3.1 Colonial houses

3.2 Informal housing: barrios

3.2.1 Progressive development of informal housing in barrios

3.3 Social Housing

3.3.1 El Silencio residential complex

3.3.2 23 de Enero Blocks

Venezuela and its housing deficit and poverty index

Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela as response to housing deficit

4.1 Definition

4.1.1 Stages of housing construction by OPPPE in Caracas

4. 2 Analysis of case studies

4.2.1 Summary table of case studies

Social Housing in Europe

5.1 History of European Social Housing

5.2 Social housing classification in the EU

5.3 Social housing features across the EU

5.4 Proportion of social housing by country

5.5 Relation between social housing and macroeconomic

5.6 Analysis of Case Studies

5.6.1 Summary table of case studies

The Project

6.1 The Simón Bolívar Park as an opportunity for Caracas. History of La Carlota. From military uses to a great green park

6.2 La Carlota site analysis

6.3 The residential complex

6.4 A new model for Venezuelan social housing

References

Bibliografia:

1. Braga M, Pal vari ni P. Social Housing in the EU. European parliament. 2013:1-60.

2. Gasparini G, Posani J. Caracas A Través De Su Arquitectura. Armitano Editores, CA. 1998.

3. Zambrano A. Un Orden En La Construcción Progresiva. Socioscopio. 2013;5:1-35.

4. INE. XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela. 2014.

5. Jaramillo C. La Política Habitacional en Venezuela: A la búsqueda de un nuevo Contrato Social. FERMENTUM. 2001(31):222-42.

6. Guitan C, Hernandez B. Ensayo de Arquitectura moderna y políticas de vivienda. Facultad de Arquitectura (FAU-UCV). 2012:1-9.

7. Alayón A, Viana J. Vivienda en Venezuela: un problema con solución. Asociación Venezolana de Ejecutivos. 2012:1-29.

8. Gomez C, Sanz J. La vivienda Multifamiliar, Caracas 1940-1970. Instituto de Arquitectura Urbana. 1983:1-105.

9. Posani J. Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela, años 2011-2012. Gobierno Bolivariano de Venezuela. 2012.

10. Venezuela T. Cuentas Digitales Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela. 2013:1-23.

11. Provea. Segundo Informe sobre la ejecución de la Gran Misión Vivienda Venezuela. 2013:1-8.

12. Nations U. Guidelines on social housing. United Nations Publications. 2006.

13. Pittini A, Laino E. Housing Europe Review 2012. Housing Europe’s Observatory. 2011:1-91.

14. Fernandez A, Monzas J, Arpa J. Density is Home. Housing by a+t research group. 2011. 1-400

15. Fernandez A, Monzas J, Arpa J. Density Housing Construction & Costs.Hoco.2009.1-464

16. Gesomino L, Marinoni O. European Housing concepts 1990-2010. 2019.1-200.

17. Rivas M. La Vivienda Social Reinterpretación Del Habitar Popular En Venezuela. 2015. FAU-UCV.

Websites

BBC Mundo

http://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias/2015/04/150310 Venezuela misión vivienda chavez.dp (Accessed 3 June, 2015)

Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Comunicación

http://www.minci.gob.ve/2015/04/mas-de-30-mil-millones-de-dolares-han-sido-invertidos-en-la-gran-mision-vivienda-venezuela/ (Accessed 10 June, 2015)

Agencia Venezolana de Noticias

http://www.avn.info.ve/contenido/128-familia-recibieron-llaves-sus-apartamentos-valles-del-tuv (Accessed 6 July, 2015)

Venezolana de Television

http://www.vtv.gob.ve/articulos/2013/07/01/sector-la-silsa-de-catia-avanza-hacia-su-transformacion-integral-9373.html (Accessed 17 July, 2015)

Venezolana de Television

http://www.vtv.gob.ve/articulos/20l3/05/23/gobierno-bolivariano-entrega-l51-viviendas-en-ciudad-tiuna-4390.html (Accessed 24 July, 2015)

El Universal

http://www.eluniversal.com/caracas/l40514/en-ciudad-tiuna-cuentan-dos-anos-sin-levantar-un-edificio (Accessed 24 July, 2015)

Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Comunicación http://www.rnv.gov.ve/movil/post.php?p=3879 (Accessed 31 July, 2015)

Ciudad Caracas

http://www.entornointeligente.com/articulo/6483183/VFNFZUELA-Mision-Vivienda-entrego-40-hogares-en-Ciudad-Zamora (Accessed 2 August, 2013)

Congreso Nacional de Arquitectura 2013-GMVV

http://arqueoarquitectural.blogspot.it/2013/08/la-gmvv-v-la-experiencia-de-la-oficina.html (Accessed 2 August, 2013)

Congreso Nacional de Arquitectura 2013-GMVV

http://arqueoarquitectural.blogspot.it/2013/06/debates-la-gmvv-como-politica-de-estado.html (Accessed 2 August, 2013)

El Universal

http://www.eluniversal.com/caracas/120507/gigantes-de-paneles-y-bloques-son-el-sello-de-la-mision-vivienda (Accessed 6 August, 2013)

Noticias 24

http://economia.noticias24.com/noticia/39143/empresa-presenta-construcciones-medulares-como-alternativa-al-deficit-de-viviendas/ (Accessed 22 August, 2013)

El Universal

http://www.eluniversal.com/caracas/l50722/gobierno-nacional-invirtio-bs-50Q-millones-en-urbanismo-santa-rosa (Accessed 22 August, 2013)

Ministerio del Poder Popular para la Vivienda

http://www.mvh.gob.ve/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1563:gmvv-llega-de-la-mano-del-gobierno-de-eficiencia-en-la-calle-a- (Accessed 7 September, 2015)

Plan Caracas 2020

http://www.plancaracas2020.com/plan/?p=1439 (Accessed 8 September, 2015)

Noticias 24

http://www.noticias24.com/venezuela/noticia/282034/nicolas-maduro-celebrara-este-jueves-los-cuatro-anos-de-la-gmvv/ (Accessed 8 September, 2015)

Gobierno del Distrito Capital

http://www.gdc.gob.ve/content/site/module/news/op/displavstorv/story_id/3608/format/html/ (Accessed 9 September, 2015)

La Red Comunidad

http://www.laredcomunidad.com.ve/detalle.php7id noticia=913 (Accessed 9 September, 2015)

Aporrea

http://www.aporrea.org/actualidad/n219522.html

(Accessed 9 September, 2015)

Venescopio

http://www.venescopio.org.ve (Accessed 10 September, 2015)

Modifica (riservato agli operatori) Modifica (riservato agli operatori)