Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Carrillo Gonzales, Ana Dolores

Flexural strength and elastic - Moduls recovery in self-healing - Concrete repaired by inorganic solutionss.

Rel. Jean Marc Christian Tulliani, Maria del Socorro Escalona. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile, 2014

Questa è la versione più aggiornata di questo documento.

Abstract:

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Architects and master-builders have been using nature as a source of inspiration long before the terms bioinspiration or biomimetics were introduced. So, which new findings can this scientific discipline biomimetics offer to architecture? New options can only result from an in-depth analysis and comparison of architecture and nature, both from a broader and deeper perspective as well as on a functional and methodological level.

Natural materials are remarkably efficient because they fulfill the complex requirements posed by the biological functions and they do so using as little material as possible. Most natural materials are complex composites whose mechanical properties are often outstanding, considering the weak constituents from which they are assembled. Moreover, most natural materials are sustainable, recyclable and, when disposal is necessary, biodegradable, making them a model for environmentally conscious engineering. These complex structures, which have risen from hundreds of millions years of evolution, are inspiring Materials Scientists in the design of novel materials.

Most living tissues or organisms can heal themselves, provided the incurred damage is moderate. Most engineered materials are developed on the basis of the damage prevention paradigm and deteriorate with time irreversibly, which limits the life of various components and sometimes causes catastrophic damage. It would be then very desirable to implement the ability of self-healing in inorganic materials. A material (concrete, polymers, ceramics, etc.) that can intrinsically correct damages caused by normal usage could lower production costs of a number of different industrial processes through longer service life, reduction of inefficiency over time caused by degradation, as well as avoidance of costs incurred by material failure. For a material to be defined as self-healing, it is necessary that the healing process occur without human intervention. In this research will be discussed as self-healing materials, Concrete.

The development of self-healing cementitious composites are focused both on the natural ability of hydrates to heal cracks over time, requiring a external trigger, like heat or light (autogenic) and artificial means of crack repair that are man-made inclusions, but do not require any external trigger, to activated the damage itself is the stimulus for the healing (autonomic).

Concrete is the most used construction material because of its high compressive strength and low cost. But, it is sensitive to crack formation and as a consequence of its limited tensile strength; these cracks endanger the durability of concrete buildings as aggressive liquids and gases may penetrate into the matrix along these cracks and cause further damage. Hence, inspection, maintenance and repair of concrete cracks are all indispensable.

Many developed countries, are experiencing unprecedented amounts of civil infrastructure deterioration, so much so that the annual outlay for repair and rehabilitation has outstripped the cost of new infrastructure construction. The annual economic impact associated with maintaining, repairing, or replacing deteriorating structures is estimated at 18-21 billion in the U.S. only. The American Society of Civil Engineers estimates that 2,2 trillion is needed over the next five years to repair and retrofit; a cost of 2 trillion has been estimated for Asia’s infrastructure. In Europe, 50 percent of the annual construction budget is spent on rehabilitation and repairing existing structures. For United Kingdom, repairing and maintenance accounts for almost 45 percent of the UK’s activity in the construction and building industry. In case of Netherlands, one third of the annual budget for large civil engineering works is spent on inspection, monitoring, maintenance, upgrade, and repair. To make matters worse, repairs of concrete structures are often short-lived. In the US, it is estimated that half of all field repairs fail and require re-repairs. The concerns related to civil infrastructure deterioration are not limited to the economic cost of repairing and rehabilitation, but extend to social and environmental costs. While there is little documentation and quantification of the social and environmental costs, it is generally agreed that repeated repairs of civil infrastructure over their service life is decidedly unsustainable.

Van Breugel, suggested a conceptual life cycle performance and cost model. The current practice of periods of gradual infrastructure deterioration punctuated by discrete repair events leads to increasingly high cumulative costs that many match or even exceed the initial construction cost.

In contrast, infrastructure built with self-healing concrete may have higher initial cost, but the self-healing functionality maintains the quality of infrastructure with minimum or no additional cost accumulation over the life cycle, resulting in a life-cycle cost that could be competitive with the cost of current concrete infrastructure. It is for these reasons that the self-healing ability would be desirable for concrete.

Therefore, first it is important to perform different tests of three-point-bending with different healing agent and then to determine the flexural strength and elastic modulus for each one of the samples with the different healing agents proposed. When these results were known, should be selected the healing agent, with the best properties that must meet the self-healing concrete. The process to select the different healing agents were made in the Department of Applied Science and Technology (DISAT) of the Politecnico di Torino; and the process to determine the physical properties were made in the Department of Structural, Geo-technical and Building Engineering (DISEG) of the Politecnico di Torino. This research is performed with the aim of achieving sustainable development in the economy and environment areas, using capsules with healing agent for the production of the Self-Healing Concrete.

Consequently of all this, it is necessary to formulate the following questions:

1.2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

- What characteristics must possess the capsules to allow a total output of the healing agent when will fracture the concrete?

- Which healing agent reacts with concrete fractured allowing to achieve the recovery of their mechanical properties (flexural strength and elastic modulus)?

- Which are the recovery percentage of the flexural strength and the elastic modulus of the self-healing concrete?

Therefore, once developed the mixing of self-healing concrete and that present the best flexural strength and elastic modulus for subsequent implementation; will be able to know the Load Recovery Index and the Stiffness Recovery Index.

1.2. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

Principal Objective

- Evaluate flexural strength and elastic modulus recovery in self-healing concrete repaired by inorganic solutions.

Specific Objectives

- Obtain a cementitious capsule with the necessary characteristics that allows a total output of the healing agent when will fracture the concrete.

- Identify the healing agent which reacts with concrete fractured allowing to achieve the recovery of their mechanical properties (flexural strength and elastic modulus).

- Indicate the recovery percentage of the flexural strength and the elastic modulus of the self-healing concrete.

1.3. JUSTIFICATION AND IMPORTANCE

Over the last decade, the concept of concrete infrastructure able to repair itself without human intervention has emerged as a possible cure for overcoming civil infrastructure deterioration. While the idea remains a novelty in practice, it has attracted a significant amount of attention in the research community. Many different approaches to functional-izing concrete to posses self-healing ability have been investigated. Given that damage in concrete is dominated by cracks, much attention has been given to self-repair of cracks. Being promising to the feasibility of future civil infrastructure smart enough to detect its own damage and undergo repair by itself. Thus self-healing concrete has significant implications in extending service life, and reducing economic, social and environmental

costs of civil infrastructure, That is, self-healing concrete could be a major enabling technology towards sustainable civil infrastructure.

Cracks in concrete are a common phenomenon due to the relatively low tensile strength. Durability of concrete is impaired by these cracks since they provide an easy path for the transportation of liquids and gases that potentially contain harmful substances. If microcracks grow and reach the reinforcement, not only the concrete itself may be attacked, but also the reinforcement will be corroded. Therefore, it is important to control the crack width and to heal the cracks as soon as possible. Self-healing of cracks in concrete would contribute to a longer service life of concrete structures and would make the material not only more durable but also more sustainable.

The present research is to study Self-Healing Concrete using a capsule with inorganic solutions to achieve sustainable development. The use of self- healing concrete can contribute with the reduction of the rate of deterioration, extension of service life, and reduction of repair frequency and cost over the life of a concrete infrastructure. These benefits may be expected to lead to enhanced environmental sustainability since fewer repairs implies lower rate of material resource usage and reduction in energy consumption and pollutant emission in material production and transport, as well as that associated with traffic alterations in transportation infrastructure during repair/reconstruction events.

Relatori: Jean Marc Christian Tulliani, Maria del Socorro Escalona
Soggetti: A Architettura > AD Bioarchitettura
A Architettura > AO Progettazione
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/4072
Capitoli:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

CONTENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Problem statement

1.2. Resesrch objectives

1.3. Justification and importance

2. THEORETICAL FRAME

2.1. Biometics

2.1.1.Nature as Model, Measure and Mentor

2.1.2. Design Spirals: Biology to Design

2.1.3. Looking at Nature

Plant World

Animal’s Kingdom

Animal’s Constructions

2.2. Cement and concrete

2.2.1. History

2.2.2. Cement

Cement Production Process

Types of Cement

2.2.3. Concrete

Composition of Concrete

Admixtures for Concrete

Concrete Production

Properties of Concrete

Concrete Testing

Types of Concrete

Deterioration of Concrete

2.3. Self-Helaing

2.3.1. Self-Healing Concrete

Autogenic Self-Healing

Autonomic Self-Healing

Healing Agents

Self-Healing Concrete Systems

3. METHODOLOGY

3.1. Research Paradigm

3.2. Nature of research

3.3. Unit of analysis

3.4. Population

3.5. Sample

3.6. Process of the investigation

3.7. Materials

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1. Data analysis and findings

5. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1. CONCLUSIONS

5.2. RECOMMENDATIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bibliografia:

- http://www.uae.edu.sv/D0C20BIBLI0TECA/Documentos/T-194CRE.pdf (Accessed September 13, 2014)

- http://growinghopethegardenproject.com/2013/ll/06/growing-hope-2/(Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://www. suezcement.com.eg/NR/rdonlyres/7BE318EB-2F42-49D8-A279-215AC5D531 O/ApproachtoConcrete.pdf (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- http://en.butterflycorner.net/Morpho-rhetenor-Blue-Morpho.448.0.html (Accessed August 13, 2014)

- http://almacattleya.blogspot.it/2013/05/ali-di-farfalla.html (Accessed August 13, 2014)

- http://ben.biomimicry.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/ BiomimicryDesignSpirals.pdf (Accessed August 9, 2014)

- http://iti.northwestern.edu/cement/monograph/Monograph3_8.html (Accessed September 6, 2014)

- http://lucassdocblog.blogspot.it/2011/ll/video-as-mental-velcro.html (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/04/biomimetics/ tom-mueller-text (Accessed August 7, 2014)

- http://paxscientific.com/mixers (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://tecnonacional.blogspot.it/2013/06/el-efecto-loto.html (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://tecnonacional.blogspot.it/2013/06/el-efecto-loto.html (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://www.biomimetic-architecture.com/ (Accessed August 7, 2014)

- http://www.biomimicrycolombia.org/biomimesis.html (Accessed August 10, 2014)

- http ://www.biomimicryinstitute.org/about-us/what-do-you-mean-by-the-term-biomimicry.html (Accessed August 10, 2014)

- http://www.biomimicryinstitute.org/about-us/what-is-biomimicry.html (Accessed August 7, 2014)

- http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2010/10/cement-making-picture-of-the-day/ (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- http://www.designboom.com/contemporary/biomimicry.html (Accessed August 9, 2014)

- http://www.frameworksinstitute.org/blogs/alumni/2012/09/ framing-social-issues-and-the-velcro-theory-of-memory/ (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://www.howitworksdaily.com/technology/what-makes-velcro-stick/ (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2013/05/17/polar-bear-bodyguard-svalbard-isl n_3291450.html (Accessed August 13, 2014)

- http://www.monograf ias.com/trabaj os94/caracteristicas-historia-del-cemento/ caracteristicas-historia-del-cemento.shtml (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- http://www.pvc.Org/en/p/plasticisers (Accessed August 9, 2014)

- http://www.reptileexpert.org/giant-day-gecko-care/ (Accessed August 12, 2014)

- http://www.santiagoturismo.com/galeria-fotografica/mes-da-apicultura-os-produtos-da-colmea-dentro-dunha-alimentacion-saudable (Accessed August 14, 2014)

- http://www.sciencebuzz.org/buzz-tags/blue-morpho-butterfly (Accessed August 13, 2014)

- http://www.thagomizer.net/2013/02/knowing-physics-makes-biology-awesome/ (Accessed August 13, 2014)

- http://www.thefishingpier.com/?p=20 (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://www.xatakaciencia.com/ (Accessed August 11, 2014)

- http://www6.uniovi.es/usr/fblanco/Leccion4.Tipos.CEMENTOS.pdf (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- https://www.thunderclap.it/projects/239-sharks-in-danger-of-extinction (Accessed August 13, 2014)

- Admixtures for concrete, http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/notes/concrete/PCA_manual/Chap06.pdf (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- Aggregates for concrete, http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/notes/concrete/PCA_manual/Chap05.pdf (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- The basic mix: A general teacher’s guide for concrete preparation, http://matsel.matse.illinois.edu/concrete/bm.html (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- Batching, mixing, trasporting, and handling concrete, https://www.google.it/urlsa=trct=jq=esrc=ssource=webcd=5cad=rjauact=8ved=0CFEQFjAEurl

(Accessed September 18, 2014)

- Biomimicry, http://biomimicry.net/ (Accessed August 6, 2014)

- Biomimicry: A tool for innovation. http://www.teacherstryscience.org/sites/default/files/uploads/lessonplan/resources/biomimicryatoolforinnovation.pdf (Accessed August 9, 2014)

- Cement, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/101833/cement (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Cement, http://www.concretenetwork.com/cement.html (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Cement and concrete basic, http://www.cement.org/cement-concrete-basics (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- Cement and its types, f ile:///C:/Users/Ana/Downloads/4-6-4-C20ing-DEF_PDF.pdf (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Cement basic, http://www.brighthubengineering.com/concrete-technology/42795-cement-basics-and-types/ (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Cement (chemical composition and hydration), http://elearning.vtu.ac.in/16/ENotes/ConcreteTechnology/Unit1-RVR/Unitl-L2-RVR.pdf (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Cement manufacturing process. http://www.cembureau.be/about-cement/ cement-manufacturing-process (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- Cement: Physical properties and types of cement, http://elearning.vtu.ac.in/16/ENotes/ConcreteTechnology/Unit1-RVR/Unitl-L3-RVR.pdf (Accessed

September 5, 2014)

- Chemical admixtures. http://www.cement.org/cement-concrete-basics/concrete-materials/chemical-admixtures (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- CIVIL 1101. Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Menphis

- Components of concrete. http://www.virginiadot.org/VDOT/Business/asset_upload_file796_3529.pdf (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- Composition of cement. http://www.engr.psu.edu/ce/courses/ce584/concrete/library/construction/curing/Composition%20of °/„20cement.htm (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Concrete. http://www.factmonster.com/encyclopedia/science/concrete. html (Accessed September 9, 2014)

- Concrete - the architect’s clay. http://www.ibuzzle.com/articles/concrete-the-architect-clay.html (Accessed September 9, 2014)

- Concrete aggregates. http: //www. ce .memphis. edu/ 1101/notes/concrete/everything_about_concrete/06_aggregate .html (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- Concrete deterioration

- Concrete in practice, what, why and how?

- Concrete, it’s ingredients and properties. http://es.slideshare.net/LuvSLife/ concrete-its-ingredients-and-products (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- Concrete materials, http://www.concretenetwork. com/concrete-mix-design/concrete_materials.htm (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- Concrete materials and testing. http://www.dot.state.mn.us/materials/manuals/concrete/Chapterl.pdf (Accessed October 3, 2014)

- Concrete: Microstruture, properties, and materials

- Concrete production, testing and product manufacture, http://www.clarkson.edu/highschool/kl2/pdf/teachersguide-concreteproduction.pdf (Accessed September 18, 2014)

- Concrete properties and mix desing. http://www.astecinc.com/images/concrete/presentations/ACPA20MIX20DESIGN20PRESENTATI0N.pdf (Accessed September 9, 2014)

- Concrete test. http://www.dot.state.mn.us/materials/manuals/concrete/ Chapter5.pdf (Accessed September 23, 2014)

- Concret Simple

- Construction materials. http://teaching.ust.hk/civllll/CHAPTER4.pdf (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- Construction Materials. BE Zhejiang University

- Curing concrete. http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/notes/concrete/PCA_manual/Chapl2.pdf (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- The deterioration of concrete

- Evaluation of physico-chemical properties of portland cement and mta. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.phppid=S1806-83242010000300004=sci_arttext (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Field emission sem. http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/carbongroup/fac_fesem.html (Accessed October 29, 2014)

- Fire resistance. http://www.concretecentre.com/technical_information/performance_and_benefits/fire_resistance. aspx (Accessed September 22, 2014)

- Functions of ingredients of cement. http://www.transtutors.com/homework-help/civil-engineering/cement/ functions-of-ingredients-of-cement.aspx (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Guidance to the engineering properties of concrete. Heavyweight concrete. http://www.concrete. org.uk/fingertips_nuggets.aspcmd=displayid=785 (Accessed October 5, 2014)

- High-performance concrete. http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/notes/concrete/PCA_manual/Chapl7.pdf (Accessed September 16, 2014)

- Historical timeline of concrete. https://fp.auburn.edu/heinmic/ConcreteHistory/Pages/timeline. htm (Accessed September 2, 2014)

- The history of concrete. http://www.concretecontractor.com/concrete-history/ (Accessed September 2, 2014)

- History of concrete. http://www.stonesoupconcrete.com/index.php/ about-concrete/history-of-concrete (Accessed September 2, 2014)

- Hoja tecnica del silicato de sodio tipo ”n”. Hoja tecnica. silicato de sodio liquido. http://www.aniq.org.mx/pqta/pdf/ Silicato0de0sodio0s-410(HT) .pdf (Accessed October 13, 2014)

- How cement is made. http://www.cement.org/cement-concrete-basics/ how-cement-is-made (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- Introduction to concrete, http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/notes/concrete/concrete_properties_slides.pdf (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- The manufacture of portland cement. http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/ inorganic/9B.pdf (Accessed September 6, 2014)

- Mapei dynamon spl. http://www.mapei.com/public/C0M/products/671_dynamon_spl_gb.pdf (Accessed October 19, 2014)

- Material property characterization of ultra-high performance concrete, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/infrastructure/structures/06103/chapt3.cfm (Accessed October 2, 2014)

- Material testing, http://www.buildingresearch.com.np/services/mt/mt2.php (Accessed October 2, 2014)

- Materiales. http://www.acerosarequipa.com/maestro-obra/maestro-obras-manuales-digitales/ maestro-obra-manual-del-maestro-constructor/1-materiales/112-el-concreto.html (Accessed September 13, 2014)

- Overview of portland cement and cconcrete. http://www.epa.gov/waste/conserve/tools/cpg/pdf/app-a.pdf (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Physical properties of ordinary portland cement. http://classes.engr.oregonstate.edu/cce/spring2014/ce492/Modules/03_materials/03-4_body.htm (Accessed September 6, 2014)

- Physical properties of ordinary portland cement, http://in.viadeo.com/en/ groups/detaildiscussion (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Portland cement, http://civilengineer.webinfolist.com/material/cement/properties.htm (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Portland cement. http://www.ce.berkeley.edu/~paulmont/241/review.pdf (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Portland cement, http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/infrastructure/materialsgrp/cement.html (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Portland cement: Type i, ii, iii - what’s the difference? http://www.concretecountertopinstitute.com/library.item.4/portland-cement-type-i-ii-iii-what-039-s-the-difference.html (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- PreStressed Concrete Structures

- Prestressed concrete structures

- Properties of concrete, http://www.wbcsdcement.org/index.php/key-issues/ sustainability-with-concrete/properties-of-concrete (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- Properties of portland cements. http://www.ce.memphis.edu/1101/notes/concrete/everything_about_concrete/03_properties.html (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Pruebas al concreto fresco, primera parte

- Pruebas al concreto fresco, segunda parte

- Silicato de potasio. http://es.termwiki.com/ES:potassium_silicate (Accessed October 13, 2014)

- Strength of concrete. http://uotechnology.edu.iq/dep-building/LECTURE/SHARING/second_class/Concrete0Technology/Ch06-Strength0ofOConcrete.pdf (Accessed September 21, 2014)

- Test on concrete

- Test on portland cement, http://people.ce.gatech.edu/kk92/testskek.pdf (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Test on portland cement. http://up.edu.ps/ocw/repositories/PDF/ECGD2206.101_t284_21092008.pdf (Accessed September 8, 2014)

- Timeline of concrete and cement history, http://www.concretecontractor.com/concrete-history/ (Accessed September 2, 2014)

- Tipos de cemento portland. http://apuntesingenierocivil.blogspot.it/ 2010/10/tipos-de-cemento-portland.html (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Tipos de cemento y sus usos. http://www.iccyc.com/pagecreator/paginas/TIPOSDECEMENTOYSUSUSOS.pdf (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Type of cement. http://cement-solution.com/general_corner/type_of_cements (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Type of portland cement, http://cescientist.com/types-of-cement/ (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Types and causes of concrete deterioration

- Types of cement. http://www.uotechnology.edu.iq/dep-building/LECTURE/SHARING/second_class/ConcreteTechnology/ChapterTwo-ypesofcement.pdf

- Types of cement. http://hassam.hubpages.com/hub/Types-Of-Cement (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Types of cement, its composition and uses. http://theconstructor.org/ building/building-material/cement/types-of-cement-composition-uses/ 5974/ (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- Types of concrete, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-concrete.html (Accessed September 9, 2014)

- What is cement? http://www.heidelbergcement.com/kz/en/country/cement/what_is_cement.htm (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- What is cement? http://www.vicat.fr/en/Activities/Cement/What-is-cement (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- What is cement and how is it made? http://www.buildeazy.com/newplans/eazylist/cement.html (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- What is cement? what does it do? how is it made? http://www.goudacement.com/what-is-cement-what-does-it-do-how-is-it-made.php (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- What is concrete? http://simscience.org/cracks/advELnced/concrete2.html (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- What is concrete: Concrete and cement defined, http://www.concretenetwork.com/concrete.html (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- What is it? http://ecosmartconcrete.com/page_id=214 (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- What is portland cement? http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-portland-cement.htm (Accessed September 5, 2014)

- What is the difference between concrete and cement? http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-difference-between-concrete-and-cement.htm (Accessed September 3, 2014)

- X-ray diffraction, http://areeweb.polito.it/ricerca/carbongroup/f ac_xrd.html (Accessed October 29, 2014)

- Strength of Concrete Beams. 1908

- Concrete Manual. 1956

- Chemistry of Hydration of Portland Cement. Chemistry of Cement, 1960

- Some interesting and useful biomimetic transforms. Third Int. Biophysics Congress, 1969

- Concrete Manual. Water Resources Thechnical Publication, 1975

- The Properties of Gases and Liquids. 1977

- Concrete Materials and Paractice. 1979

- Técnicas de Investigación Social. Buenos Aires: Editorial Humanitas, 1982

- ’’Architektur und Bionik”. VEB Verlag fA|r Bauwesen, Berlin, Germany, 1983

- Concrete production, quality control, and ecaluation in service. Pitman Publishing, 1983

- Handbook of Structural Concrete. Pitman Advanced Publishing Program, 1983. Properties of Concrete. 1983

- Chemistry of Cement and Concrete. Elsevier, 1988

- Encyclopedia of Architecture, Design, Engineering and Construction. The American Institute of Architects, 1988

- Metodoloqia de la investiqacion. Mexico: McGraw-Hill, Interamicana de Mexico S.A., 1991

- Concrete Manual Part 2. A Water Resources Technical Publication. 1992

- El proceso de Investigación. 1992

- Reinforced Concrete: Preliminary Design for Architects and Builders. 1992. Durabilità delle opere in calcestruzzo. EDILIZIA, 1995

- ’’Biomimicry: Innovation inspired by nature”. New York, United States of America, 1st Edition, 1997

- Cement Chemistry. 1997

- Como se eleabora el Proyecto de Investigación. Caracas: Editorial Episteme, 1997

- Paradigmas y Métodos de la investigación. Venezuela: Episteme Consultores Asociados C.A., 1997

- Metodologia de la Investigación Holistica. Caracas: Fundación SYPAL, 1998

- Concrete through the ages from 7000 BC to AD 2000. 1999

- El Proyecto de Investigación. Guia para su elaboración. Caracas: Fotolito Quintana, 1999

- Tecnología e Natura: gli insegnamenti del mondo naturale, per il progetto dell’architettura bioclimatica. 2000

- ”A lifetime of connections - Otto Herbert Schmitt, 1913 - 1998”. Phys. Perspect, 2001

- Assessment of Selected LTPP Material Data Tables and Development of Representative Test Tables and Development of Representative Test Tables. 2001

- Biomorphic Architecture - Human and Animal Forms in Architecture. Stuttgart, 2002

- ”Bionik, Grundlagen und Beispiele fA\r Ingenieure und Naturwissenschaftler”. 2002

- Guidebook on non-destructive testing of concrete structures. IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency of Vienna), 2002

- Workability and Rheology of Fresh Concrete: Compendium of Test. RILEM Publications s.a.r.l., 2002

- Effects of Concrete Deterioration on Safety of Dams. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation, 2003

- Summary of Concrete Workability Test Methods. Aggregates Foundation for Technology, Research, and Education, 2003

- Zoomorphic - New Animal Architecture. London, Laurence King Publishing, 2003

- Design for Life - the Architecture of Sim Van der Ryn. Salt Lake City, Gibbs Smith, 2005

- Materiali in architettura. Calcestruzzo. 2005

- ”Biomimetics - its practice and theory”. 2006

- Shifting our Mental Model - ’’Sustainability” to Regeneration. Rethinking Sustainable Construction 2006: Next Generation Green Buildings. Sarasota, Florida, 2006

- ’’Biomimetics in Architecture [Architekturbionik]. Architecture of Life and Buildings”. Vienna, Austria, 2008

- High Strength Concrete to Singapore Standard CP 65. Building and Construction Autority, 2008

- Materiali per l’architettura contemporánea. CEMENTO. 2008

- Concrete Structures. Protection, Repair and Rehabilitation. Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009

- Concrete Vaulted Construction in Imperial Rome. IInnovation in context. 2009

- Comparing Design in Nature with Science and Engineering. Design and Nature V. 2010

- Prestressed Concrete, A Fundamental Approach. Prentice Hall, 2010

- Field Inspection of Portland Cement Concrete. Materials Method 9.2, 2012.

- Manual on best practice in the application of roman cements. Roman cement, past and present conservation theory and practice. Rocare, 2012

- The science of Concrete. Northwestern University, 2014

- Sandro Alberti. Biomimetic architecture. WA/SA, Aloha, 2002

- Jordi Alemany. Biomimesis: Tecnologia inspirada en la naturaleza. Namaste, 2014

- Raymond Wagner Andrew R. Barron and Don Johnson. Chemical composition of portland cement. Rice University, 2010

- Devrah Arndt. Nature’s nanotechnology, bio-mimicry, and making the superpowers of your dreams a reality. Sustainable Nano, 2013

- National Precast Concrete Association. Concrete sampling and testing. http ://precast.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/TechNote_Concrete_ Sampling_and_Testing.pdf (Accessed October 2, 2014)

- G. Bachofen and L. Prodan. Cement and concrete. ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, 2011

- Catalin Badea and Liana lures. Concrete. University of Timisoara, Building Faculty

- Gibbs Bamforth, Chisholm and Harrison. Properties of concrete for use in eurocode 2. http://sefindia.org/forum/files/properties_of_concrete_for_use_in_ eurocode_2_135.pdf (Accessed October 23, 2014)

- Christine M. Clark Barbara L Dutrow, Louisiana State University. X-ray powder diffraction (xrd). Geochemical Instrumentation and Analysis. Eastern Michigan University

- B. Bhattacharjee. Construction practices. Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

- David Bilow and Mahmoud Kamara. Fire and concrete structures. Structures: Crossing Borders, 2008

- Encyclopaedia Britannica. Reinforced concrete. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2014

- A. D. Jefferson C. Joseph and M. B. Cantoni. Issues relating to the autonomic healing of cementitious materials

- B Isaacs R. LLark C. Joseph, A. Jefferson and D. Gardner. Experimental investigation of adhesive-based self-healing of cementitious materials. Mag. Concr. Res., 2010

- E. Cailleux and V. Pollet. Investigations on the development of self-healing properties in protective coatings for concrete and repair mortars

- J. Camilleri. Evaluation of the physical properties of an endodontic portland cement incorporating alternative radiopacifiers used as root-end filling material. International Endodontic Journal, 2010

- CCANZ. Testing. http://www.ccanz.org.nz/files/documents/ddl59831-bda5-4942-91c6-7334ff04e296/Chapter202120-20Testing.pdf (Accessed October 1, 2014)

- Tony Jefferson Christopher Joseph, Robert Lark and Diane Gardner. Potential application of self-healing materials in the construction industry. Cardiff University. Prifysgol Caerdydd, 2009

- C. M. Dry and W. McMillan. Three-part methylmethacrylate adhesive system as an internal delivery system for smart responsive concrete. Smart Materials and Structures, 1996

- C.M. Dry. Smart multilhase composite materials that repair themselves by release of liquids that become solids

- C.M. Dry. Matrix cracking repair and filling using active and passive modes for smart timed release of cchemical from fibers into cement matrices. Smart Materials and Structures, 1994

- World Business Council for Sustainable Development. Properties of concrete. Cement Sustainability Initiative, 2014

- R. Lakes G. Greaves, A. Greer and T. Rouxel. Poisson’s ratio and modern materials. Nature Materials, 2011

- Yash Gode. Types of concrete. Buzzle, 2010

- Nick Gromicko and Kenton Shepard. Constituent materials of concrete. Inter-NACHI

- Nick Gromicko and Kenton Shepard. The history of concrete. InterNACHI

- E. Schlangen H. Jonkers. Towards a sustainable bacterially-mediated self healing concrete

- J. van de Kuilen W. Gard M. de Rooij E. Schalangen H. Liu, S. Qian and W. Ursem. Self healing of concrete cracks using hollow plant fibres

- J.L. Halary H. Lombois-Burger, P. Colombet and H. Van Damme. Kneading and extrusion of dense polymer-cement pastes. Science Direct, 2006

- T. Nishiwaki H. Mihashi, Y. Kaneko and K. Otsuka. Fundamental study on development of intelligent concrete characterized by self-healing capability for strength. Trans. Jpn Concr. Inst., 2000

- T. Nishiwaki H. Mihashi, Y. Kaneko and K. Otsuka. Fundamental study on development of intelligent concrete characterized by self-healing capability for strength. Trans. Jpn Conor. Inst., 2000

- Guang Ye Haoliang Huang. Application of sodium silicate solution as self-healing agent in cementitious materials. International RILEM Conference on Advances in Construction Materials Through Science and Engineering, 2011

- O. Hisashiburi. Concrete experiment. Achmad Syaiful Makmur. Earn and Share http://achmadsya.wordpress.com/2010/05/09/ ohisashiburi-concrete-experiment/ (Accessed October 3, 2014)

- H. Huang and G. Ye. Application of sodium silicate solution as self-healing agent in cementitious materials

- Kevin Hunt. New ’’heritage materials”. http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/resources/heritagebranch/heritage/hunt.pdf (Accessed September 2, 2014)

- Post-Tensioning Institute. What is post-tensioning? Post-Tensioning Institute, 2000

- N. de Belie J. Wang and W. Verstraete. Diatomaceous earth as a protective vehicle for bacteria applied for self-healing concrete. Biotechnol, 2012

- Guillermo Jose Jacobo. La naturaleza como ejemplo ideal de una arquitectura bioclimatica ecologica. Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, 2004

- M. Jamshidi and A. R. Pourkhorshidi. A comparative study on physical/mechanical properties of polymer concrete and portland cement concrete. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2010

- Weerakoon Jayawardane, Ukwatta and Pathirana. Physical and chemical properties of fly ash based portland pozzolana cement. Civil Engineering Research Exchange Symposium, 2012

- H. Jonkers. Bacteria-based self-healing concrete. Heron, 2011

- H. Jonkers and A. Thijssen. Bacteria mediated remediation of concrete structures

- Scanferla Lucas Jordan. Ensayos de hormigon en estado fresco y endurecido. Master’s thesis, LEMaC Centro de Investigaciones Viales, 2009

- Carlos Eduardo Saraiva Miranda Alvaro Henrique Borges Jorge Luis GonA§alves, Raqueli Viapiana and Antonio Miranda da Cruz Filho. Evaluation of physicochemical properties of portland cement and mta. Master’s thesis, University of Ribeirao Preto, Brazil, 2010

- N. de Belie K. Van Tittelboom. Self-healing concrete: Suitability of different healing agents. Int. J. 3R’s, 2010

- P. Dubruel P. Van Puyvelde K. Van Tittelboom, K. Adesanya and N. De Belie. Methyl methacrylate as a healing agente for self-healing cementitious materials. IOPscience, 2011

- Colin Lobo Karthik Obla and Lionel Lemay. Specifying concrete for durability. NRMCA Concrete InFocus, 2005

- Denis Van Loo Kim Van Tittelboom, Nele De Belie and Patric Jacobs. Self-healing efficiency of cementitious materials containing tubular capsules filled with healing agent. ScienceDirect, 2011

- Will Knight. Gecko tape will stick you to ceiling. Nature Materials, 2003

- Jing-Siang Jhuang Kung-Chung Hsu and Chao-Wei Tang. Effects of a hydrogel on the self-curing properties of mortats. World Journal of Engineering, 2010

- W. Yu L. Sun and Q. Ge. Experimental research on the self-healing performance of micro-cracks in concrete bridge. Adv. Mater. Res., 2011

- Paul Lambert. Cement and concrete - history and development. Azom.com, 2002

- M. Lepech and V. Li. Large scale processing of engineered cementitious composite. ACI Materials Journal, 2008

- M. Li and V. Li. Cracking and healing of engineered cementitious composites under chloride environment. ACI Materials Journal, 2011

- Victor Li and Tetsushi Kanda. Engineered cementitious composites for structural applications. ASCE Journal Materials in Civil Engineering, 1998

- Victor C. Li and Emily Herbert. Robust self-healing concrete for sustainable infrastructure. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 2012

- H. Liu W. Gard J. van de Kuilen M. De Rooij, S. Qian. Using natural wood fibers to self heal concrete

- L. Kan M. Li, R. Ranade and V. Li. On improving the infrastructure service life using ecc to mitigate rebar corrosion

- I. A. Khan M. S. Ali and M. I. Hossain. Chemical analysis of ordinary portland cement of bangladesh. Chemical Engineeering Research Bulletin, 2008

- Hirozo Mihashi and Tomoya Nishiwaki. Development of engineered self-healing and self-repairing concrete. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 2012

- BjAfrn Johannesson Min Wu and Mette Geiker. Self-healing in cementitious materials and engineered cementitious composite as a self-healing material. SciVerse ScienceDirect, 2011

- Gopal Mishra. Penetration resistance (windsor probe and pnr test). The Constructor Civil Engineering Home, 2011

- Gopal Mishra. Factors affecting durability of concrete. The Constructor Civil Engineering Home, 2012

- Paulo Monteiro. Durability of concrete. The University of California-Berkeley. Paulo Monteiro. Strength of concrete. The University of California-Berkeley

- MPA. Lightweight concrete. http://www.concretecentre.com/technical_information/building_solutions/special_concrete/lightweight_ concrete. aspx (Accessed October 5, 2014)

- MPA. Self-compacting concrete (see). http://www.concretecentre.com/technical_information/building_solutions/special_concrete/ self-compacting_concrete. aspx (Accessed October 5, 2014)

- M. Nagesh. Concrete technology

- NeoFronteras. Papel de las nanoestructuras en autolimpieza del loto. NeoFronteras. 2006

- Mihashi H. Jang B-K. Nishiwaki, T. and K. Miura. Development of self-healing system for concrete with selective heating around crack, journal = Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, year = 2006,optkey =, optvolume= 4, optnumber= , optpages = 267-275, optmonth = , optnote = , optannote =

- The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Concrete. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012

- Jesus David Osorio. Resistencia mecanica del concreto y resistencia a la compresion. 360 grados en concreto, 2013

- N. Panchuk. An exploration into biomimicry and its application in digital and parametric (architectural) design. Master’s thesis, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2006.

- Miguel Angel Parra and Humberto Solis. Tecnologia del concreto. Master’s thesis, Universidad Mexiquense del Bicentenario, 2012

- Bryant Mather Paul J. Tikalsky and Jan Olek. Concrete durability. Comittee on Durability of Concrete

- PCA. Precast concrete. America’s Cement Manufacturers

- PCA. Prestressed concrete. America’s Cement Manufacturers

- Achille Peiris and Becky Stein. Capillary action. U CD AVIS CHEMWIKI

- M. Pelletier. Smart concrete/michelle pelletier. http://www.archdaily.com/ 62357/smart-concrete-michelle-pelletier/ (Accessed October 14, 2014)

- Inc. PhotoMetrics. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (fesem). http://photometries. net/analytical-techniques/field-emission-scanning-electron-microscopy-fesem (Accessed October 29, 2014)

- T. V. Powers. Structure and physical properties of hardened portland cement paste. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 1958

- Rakesh Chandra Raman Bedi and S. Singh. Mechanical properties of polymer concrete. Journal of Composites, 2013

- Jose Garcia-Pozuelo Ramos. Biomimetica: Cuando el hombre imita la naturaleza. Naturalia, 2008

- Jorgue Riechmann. Biomimesis. El Ecologista, 2003

- MariAnez P. Enrique Rocha R. Enrique, Rodriguez G. Jose Amparo and Lopez H. Juan. Biomimetica: Innovacion sustentable inspirada por la naturaleza. Investigation y Ciencia. Autonomous University of Aguascalientes, Mexico, 2012

- Jorge D. Pamplona Roger. El diseno inteligente: en el reino vegetal. Naturalia, 2008

- Jim Rogers. Post-tensioned slabs. Concrete Construction Annual Floors Issue 2008, 2008

- Richard Rogerson. Hardened concrete testing. Sandberg

- P. H. Geubelle J. S. Moore M. R. Kessler S. R. Sriram E. N. Brown S. R. White, N.

- R. Sottos and S. Viswanathan. Autonomic healing of polymer composites. Macmillan Magazines Ltd, 2001

- David Sanchez. Morphotex and the butterfly. Biomimetic

- Design {http ://biomimeticdesign.wordpress.com/2009/02/04/morphotex-and-the-butterfly/}(AccessedAugustl3,2014)

- David Sanchez. Swimsuits sharskin inspired. Biomimetic Design {http ://biomimeticdesign.wordpress.com/2008/10/06/swimsuits-sharkskin-inspired-banadores-inspirados-en-la-piel-de-tiburon/ } (AccessedAugustl3,2014)

- Manuel Martorell Sanz. Diseno inteligente: Un nuevo paradigma. Naturalia, 2008

- Prank Senatore. Rapid hardening cement. Concrete Construction, 2010

- AU YONG THEAN SENG. Concrete durability. Scribd, 2008

- R. E. Shaeffer. History of concrete. Reinforced Concrete: Preliminary Design for Architects and Builders, 1992

- Saroj Mandai Shaswata Mukherjee and Adhikari U. B. Study on the physical and mechanical property of ordinary portland cement and fly ash paste. International Journal of Civil and Structural Engineering, 2012

- SIDESA. Uses and applications of liquid and solid sodium silicate. Marketizer, 2012

- Concrete Construction Staff. Polymer concrete. Concrete Construction, 1971

- Richard W. Steiger. The history of concrete. Concrete Journal, 1995

- Suryakanta. Compressive strength test of concrete, http://civilblog.org/2013/ 05/10/compressive-strength-test-of-concrete-is516-1959/ (Accessed October 10, 2014)

- A. Hosada S. Suzuki T. Kishi, T. Ahn and H. Takaoka. Self-healing behaviour by cementitious recrystallization of cracked concrete incorporating expansive agent

- Schlangen Ter Heide and van Breugel. Knud hoejgaard conference on advanced cement-based materials. Technical University of Denmark, 2005

- Kim Van Tittelboom and Nele De Belie. Self-healing in cementitious materials. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute, 2013

- Edwin Trout. The versatility of concrete. The Aggregates and Recycling Information Network, 2010

- S. Wang A. Ogawa T. Saito V. C. Li, C. Wu. Interface tailoring for strain-hardening polyvinyl alcohol-engineered cementitious composite (pva-ecc). ACI Materials Journal, 2002

- van Breugel. Is there a market for self-healing cement-based materials. Proceedings of the first interntational conference on self-healing materials, 2007

- Diederik Veenendaal, Mark West, and Philippe Block. History and overview of fabric formwork: using fabrics for concrete casting. Structural Concrete, 2011

- N. de Belie Wang, K. van Tittelboom and W. Verstraete. Use of silica gel or polyurethane ... continua

Modifica (riservato agli operatori) Modifica (riservato agli operatori)