Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Delbosco, Michela

A Tool kit for sustainable demonstration projects: the experience of the Europe-China Clean Energy Centre and the EURUMQI Demo Zone project in Urumqi, Xinjiang.

Rel. Roberto Pagani, Alessandra Zanelli. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile, 2014

Questa è la versione più aggiornata di questo documento.

Abstract:

The increasing need for a sustainable energy development in China, in a situation where extreme energy consumption and pollutant emissions are almost an inborn characteristic of urban and metropolitan areas and the unbearable growth of cities is unbalanced and out of any control, has to be taken as a primary challenge for the nation. Moreover, the complex Chinese climate and environment add the need for addressing climate change to the existing energy-related problems.

The 12th Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development, drafted in 2011, develops the concept of green and low-carbon development, related to its objectives towards an increased application of renewable energies and their integration with conventional energy systems, as well as towards the improvement of the overall capability for innovation in renewable energy technologies and strategies. Additionally, it aims to foster the deployment of key demonstration projects for energy conservation and low-carbon pilot projects, and the development of a circular economy.

In such a framework, a five-year cooperation project between the European Union and China, called Europe-China Clean Energy Centre (EC2), was launched in March 2010, with the aim of promoting an increased introduction and adoption of clean innovative technologies in China and supporting the Government's efforts to shape a more sustainable, environmental friendly and efficient energy sector.

EC2 focuses on four more specific objectives, regarding fostering technological cooperation, providing policy advisory to China and EU towards clean energy policies, building capacity on clean energy and helping awareness raising about the environmental benefits of clean energy policies and technologies in China. A specific work package, called Technology Platform, focuses on the promotion of technological cooperation and business between European Union and China through the setting up of Demo Zones, which are namely demonstrative actions concentrated in specific geographical areas.

The Demo Zone concept is a new area of exploration for EC2. Although its exact definition is still open to debate, according to EC2 Strategic Plan a Demo Zone "represents the capability of focusing on a demonstration site, by using EC2 common methodological tools, which will unify joint actions and efforts. The Demo Zone will be made available by the Chinese counterparts, while the EU partners will provide the professional and industrial expertise for the start- up of the Demo Zone design and technological solutions".

To test the concept of Demo Zone, EC2 was assigned the challenge of designing a development strategy for Urumqi, capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, leading city in northwestern China, located dose to the ancient Silk Route, and currently one of the most polluted cities in China and in the world.

The Europe-China Clean Energy Centre is drafting a large-scale energy- oriented masterplan for the Demo Zone with a 2030 timeframe, promoting strong and effective partnerships among the Urumqi Government, public authorities and European private companies.

"The Demo Zone is, primarily, a methodological challenge. Given its intrinsic complexity, the challenge can only be met with a strong methodological background, creating a win-win strategy and advantages for both the local community and investors, and inspiration for other Chinese cities."2 In order to cope with this, a set of methodological tools called Toolkit has been drawn up and it is being tested in the Urumqi Demo Zone.

The Toolkit is based on selected successful EU methodologies to support the design of urban demonstration projects in the most efficient, effective and sustainable way. It represents a set of planning tools specifically selected for helping Chinese decision makers, managers and technical staff at city level in decisional and planning processes involving community representatives, businesses, technology providers, investors and experts, with the aim of developing the Demo Zone masterplan. Its structure includes four main fields, connected to the main factors characterizing the transformation process, such as Decision Planning, Action Planning, Technology Planning and Business Planning.

The aim of this thesis is focusing on the key aspects of the Demo Zone Toolkit testing, as a new innovative instrument for urban demonstration projects implementation, analyzing the main outcomes and its direct impact on the sustainable development of Urumqi.

Relatori: Roberto Pagani, Alessandra Zanelli
Soggetti: G Geografia, Antropologia e Luoghi geografici > GD Estero
S Scienze e Scienze Applicate > SG Fisica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea magistrale in Architettura per il progetto sostenibile
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/3604
Capitoli:

1. Introduction

2. China, energy, environment: current situation and future

forecasts

3. The role of EC2

3.1. Objectives and activities

3.2. Fields of action

4. The Demo Zone

4.1. The city of Urumqi

4.2. EURUMQI Demo Zone Project

4.2.1. Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Pian

4.2.2. Circular Economy Pian

4.2.3. Tools for Implementation

4.2.4. Milestones

4.3. The Demo Zone areas

5. The Toolkit

5.1. The matrix

5.2. The 6 "low-carbon" themes

5.3. Decision Planning Tools

5.4. Action Planning Tools

5.5. Technology Planning Tools

5.6. Business Planning Tools

6. A "keys in hand" kit for sustainable demonstration projects

7. Decision Planning: stakeholders analysis and objectives

definition

7.1. Stakeholder Mapping

7.1.1. Operation

7.1.2. Procedure

7.1.3. Implementation within EURUMQI Demo Zone

7.2. Identification Session

7.2.1. Operation

7.2.2. Procedure

7.2.3. Implementation within EURUMQI Demo Zone

8. Action Planning: building thè know-how and generating a common

vision

8.1. Sharing Event

8.1.1. Operation

8.1.2. Procedure

8.1.3. Implementation within EURUMQI Demo Zone

8.2. Vision Workshop

8.2.1. Operation

8.2.2. Procedure

8.2.3. Implementation within EURUMQI Demo Zone

9. Technology Planning tools: energy plans and demo projects

selection

9.1. Energy Action Pian

9.1.1. Operation

9.1.2. Procedure

9.1.3. Implementation within EURUMQI Demo Zone

9.2. Multi-Criteria Analysis method

9.2.1. Operation

9.2.2. Procedure

9.2.3. Implementation within EURUMQI Demo Zone

10. Business Planning tools: demo projects implementation

10.1. Project Finance

10.1.1. Operation

10.1.2. Procedure

10.1.3. Implementation within EURUMQI Demo Zone

11. Lessons from thè Chinese experience

12. Conclusions

13. Bibliography

14. Annexes

Table of figures

1. The city of Urumqi nowadays

2. Location of Xinjiang and Urumqi - original map from Google Maps

(http://maps.qooqle.com)

3. Urumqi average temperatures (records registered in 2013)

4. International Grand Bazaar area in Urumqi, witness of Islamic influence and of thè

past commercial and financial power of thè city

5. Urumqi demographic composition

6. Evolution of Urumqi demographic composition

7. Heavy haze and pollution in Urumqi

8. Urumqi City map

9. Urumqi City map with thè three Zones

10. Scheme of thè urban strategies approaches involved within a demonstration

Project - elaboration based on thè structure of thè European project CONCERTO, by Roberto Pagani

11. Demo Zone Toolkit matrix - from Europe-China Clean Energy Centre (EC2), Demo

Zone Toolkit, 2013

12. Decision Planning Tools within thè Demo Zone Toolkit matrix - from Europe-China

Clean Energy Centre (EC2), Demo Zone Toolkit, 2013

13. Action Planning Tools within thè Demo Zone Toolkit matrix - from Europe-China Clean Energy Centre (EC2), Demo Zone Toolkit, 2013

14. Technology Planning Tools within thè Demo Zone Toolkit matrix - from Europe-

China Clean Energy Centre (EC2), Demo Zone Toolkit, 2013

15. Business Planning Tools within thè Demo Zone Toolkit matrix - from Europe-China

Clean Energy Centre (EC2), Demo Zone Toolkit, 2013

16. Toolkit structure sktech

17. Toolkit structure scheme and relationship with EURUMQI

18. Tools selected and tested within thè EURUMQI Demo Zone project

19. Flip-board representing an example of Stakeholder Mapping

20. Stakeholder Analysis Matrix sample template, showing its application for a European project based on an issue of river water pollution and its impact on incomt and health - source: European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines...

21. SWOT Analysis Chart base template

22. Venn Diagram sample, showing its application for a European project based on an

issue of river water pollution and its impact on income and health - source: European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines

23. Relationship Matrix base template

24. H.E. Markus Ederer, EU Ambassador to China, opens thè EURUMQI Alliance Trade

Mission to Urumqi, 17th June 2013

25. Public session of networking among thè main EU and Chinese institutions and

companies, 17th June 2013

26. Stakeholder Analysis Matrix template for EURUMQI Demo Zone project

27. Venn Diagram for EURUMQI Demo Zone project

28. Relationship Matrix template for EURUMQI Demo Zone project, simplified version

29. A moment of an Identification Session

30. Problem Analysis sample (Problem Tree), showing its application for a European

project based on an issue of river water pollution and its impact on income and health - source: European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines

31. Objectives Analysis sample (Objective Tree), showing its application for a European project based on an issue of river water pollution and its impact on income and health - source: European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines...

32. Strategies Analysis sample, showing its application for a European project based

on an issue of river water pollution and its impact on income and health - source: European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines

33. Xinjiang Province main data analyzed during thè workshop

34. Sketch of thè EU strategy concept: and acupuncturist focusing intervention on

specific criticai areas of Urumqi

35. A moment of problem analysis and discussion in Urumqi

36. Representatives from Urumqi Municipality attending thè Identification Session ...

37. Representatives from Urumqi Municipality and EC2 visiting potential Demo Zone

areas

38. A moment of a Sharing Event session

39. Prof. Liu Xiaoli, EC2 CN co-director, illustrating EC2 project

40. Flip board displaying thè eight keywords and thè 'what does not work' post-its...

41. Participants attending thè Sharing Event

42. Participants discussing thè outcomes of thè working sessions

43. Participants placing 'what works' post-its on thè flip board, dose to 'what does not

work' ones

44. Post-its shortly describing positive and negative scenarios in a Vision Workshop.

45. Participants proposing scenarios

46. Prioritizing ideas in a Vision Workshop

47. Agreement between EC2 and Urumqi on thè occasion of launching EURUMQI Demo

Zone project

48. Participants attending thè Study Day in Urumqi

49. The flip-chart board displaying scenarios proposed by participants

50. Prioritization of ideas, through stickers dose to post-its

51. Setting players among participants

52. Energy Balance sample: analysis of specific primary energy for heating

53. Energy Balance sample: analysis of energy use among sectors and for different

sources

54. Energy Balance sample: analysis of energy consumption distribution among thè

main sectors

55. Energy Balance sample: analysis of total C02 annual emission in Torino, Italy ..

56. Mean monthly sunshine hours in Urumqi (2010)

57. Air humidity in Urumqi during thè year (2010)

58. Precipitation in Urumqi during thè year (2010)

59. RECAST Urumqi project scheme, by Heidelberg University

60. Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Pian Report

61. Hierarchy of Principles, Criteria, Indicators and Verifiers

62. MCA Chart sample for Principles evaluation and prioritization

63. MCA Chart sample for Indicators evaluation and prioritization

64. MCA Chart sample for Projects evaluation and prioritization

65. The four clusters of thè proposed Demo Zone projects

66. Gan Quan_Technology Park cluster priorities

67. Development Zone_Circular Economy cluster priorities

68. Retrofit_Heating Metering cluster priorities

69. Green County_Dapan cluster priorities

70. Set of C&I for EURUMQI projects selection with Multi-Criteria Analysis

71. Participants discussing about thè outcomes of Projects Selection

72. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) involved in Project Finance

73. Risks taken by a SPV in Project Finance

74. Round table involving EU and CN companies participating to thè Alliance Trade

Mission in Urumqi

75. Planning of EURUMQI Demo Zone projects implementation according to space and

time

76. Presentation of Urumqi Energy Development Outlook and Investment Environment

by Urumqi DRC

77. EU companies representatives attending thè Alliance Trade Mission in Urumqi..

78. Chinese project promoters representatives attending thè Alliance Trade Mission in

Urumqi

79. Networking between European and Chinese companies, Private Session

80. Group picture of EU and CN participants to Alliance Trade Mission in Urumqi....

Bibliografia:

[1] Blacksmith Institute, The World's Worst Polluted Places. The Top Ten of The Dirty Thirty, Blacksmith Institute, New York, 2007

[2] - Bureau of Commerce,

High-tech zone Ganquanbao Industriai Park Facts - Urumqi High-tech Industriai Development Zone (new city), 21 May 2012 (http://www.wxsq.qov.cn/structure/zixq/tzhinr 1360 l.htm)

[3] Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Guidelines for Applying Multi-Criteria Analysis to thè Assessment of Criteria and Indicators, Jakarta, 1999

[4] China National Energy Administration and China National Renewable Energy Centre, Key information at a glance. China 12th Five-Year Pian for Renewable Energy Development (2011-2015), 2013

[5] Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and thè United States, National Academy of Engineering, National Research Council, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering, Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and thè United States, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 2008

[6] Committee on U.S.-China Cooperation on Electricity from Renewable Resources, National Research Council, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Engineering, The Power of Renewables: Opportunities and Challenges for China and thè United States, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 2000

[7] European Commission, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, in Aid Delivery Methods, vol. 1, EuropeAid Cooperation Office, Bruxelles, 2004

[8] International Institute for Sustainable Development (USD), Harnessing thè Power of Public-Private Partnerships. The rote of hybrid financing strategies in sustainable development, USD Report, New York, 2012

[9] Juan Li, Guoshun Zhuang, Kan Huang, Yanfen Lin, Chang Xu, Shulong Yu, "Characteristics and sources of air-borne particulate in Urumqi, China, thè upstream area of Asia dust", from Atmospheric Environment, Science Direct, n. 42 (2008), pp. 776-787

[10] Michael Doumpos, Constantin Zopounidis, Multicriteria Decision Aid Classification Methods, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002

[11] International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2007: China and India Insights, OECD IEA, Paris, 2007

[12] Jianfei Jia, "Whose Xinjiang? The Transition in Chinese Intellectuals' Imagination of thè 'New Dominion' During thè Qing Dynasty", from Harvard- Yenching Institute Working Paper Series, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, 2011

[13] Nolberto Munier, Multicriteria environmental assessment: a practical guide, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2004

[14] Roberto Pagani, "New vision, innovative approach", from Clean Energy Perspectives - Newsletter of thè Europe-China Clean Energy Centre, issue 5 (2012), p. 1

[15] S. D. Pohekar, M. Ramachandran, "Application of multi-criteria decision making to sustainable energy planning - A review", from Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Science Direct, n. 8 (2004), pp. 365-381

[16] Jules N. Pretty, Irene Guijt, John Thompson, Ian Scoones, Participatory Learning and Action. A trainer's guide, International Institute for Environment and Development, London, 1995

[17] R. Fa., "Tecnologie verdi, Europa apripista", from II Sole 24 Ore, n. 241 (2013), p. 41

[18] Olivia Ward, "The world's 10 worst places to live", in The Star, Toronto, 31 December 2012

[19] Nick Wates, The Community Planning Handbook. How people can shape their cities, towns & villages in any part of thè world, Earthscan, London, 2000

[20] The World Bank Group - Independent Evaluation Group (IEG), Energy efficiency finance: assessing thè impact of IFC's China utility-based energy efficiency finance program, The World Bank, Washington D.C., 2010

[21] Steven R. Walk, A new fast, reliable filtering method for multiple criteria decision making, Emerald Group Publishing, voi. 49, n. 5 (2011), pp. 810-822

[22] The World Bank, The Logframe Handbook. A Logical Framework Approach to Project Cycle Management, The World Bank, Washington D.C., 2005

[23] - Xiao Jun Wang Xiufeng, Approaches to solving water supply problems for thè development projects in thè Midong New Area, 13 January 2009 (http://www.xiass.com/ii/content/2009-01/13/content 53392 ll.htm)

[24] Constantin Zopounidis, Panos M. Pardalos (Eds.), Handbook of Multicriteria Analysis, Springer, Berlin, 2010

Documents

[1] Matthias Ehrgott, Boris Naujoks, Theodor J. Stewart, Jyrki Wallenius, Multiple criteria decision making for sustainable energy and transportation systems, Proceedings of thè 19th International Conference on Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Auckland, 7th-12th January 2008, Springer, Berlin, 2010

[2] Europe-China Clean Energy Centre (EC2), Demo Zone Toolkit, 2013

[3] Europe-China Clean Energy Centre (EC2), EURUMQI Demo Zone: Approaching thè Projects \ EC2 Alliance Trade Mission to Urumqi, Minutes of thè event, 17 June 2013

[4] Europe-China Clean Energy Centre (EC2), Policy Recommendations on Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction during thè 12th Five-Year Pian Period in Urumqi, Report, March 2013

[5] Energy Research Institute of thè National Development and Reform Commission (ERI/NDRC), Research on thè Circular Economy Plan of Urumqi, Report, March 2013

[6] Information Office of thè State Council, China's Cabinet, China's Policies

and Actions for Addressing Climate Change, White paper, Beijing, November 2011 (downloaded at http://enqlish.qov.cn/official/2011-11/22/content 20002728.htm)

[7] Nannan Lundin, Alessandra Merlo, Roberto Pagani, The Clean Energy

Demo Zone as a case of cooperation between thè European Union and China,

Paper presented at thè Conference "The EU and Emerging Powers", EU Parliament, 29th-30th April 2013, Bruxelles, 2013

Websites

[1] ChinaToday.com, Urumqi (http://www.chinatoday.com/citv/urumqi.htm)

[2] Encyclopaedia Britannica, Urumqi

(http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/620188/Urumqi)

[3] Europe-China Clean Energy Centre (http://www.ec2.orq.cn)

[4] Extreme Temperatures around thè World (http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm)

[5] TravelChinaGuide, Urumqi

(www.travelchinaquide.com/attraction/xiniianq/urumqi)

14. Annexes

Annex 1 - Demo Zone Toolkit, Synthesis

Annex 2 - Decision Planning tools_Stakeholder Mapping, Training and Practice Annex 3 - Stakeholder Analysis Matrix in EURUMQI Annex 4 - Relationship Matrix in EURUMQI

Annex 5 - Decision Planning tools_Identification Session, Training and Practice

Annex 6 - Action Planning tools_Sharing Event, Training and Practice

Annex 7 - Action Planning tools_Vision Workshop, Training and Practice

Annex 8 - Technology Planning tools_Energy Action Pian, Training and Practice

Annex 9 - Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Pian in EURUMQI, Policy Recommendations

Annex 10 - Technology Planning tools_Multicriteria Analysis, Training and Practice

Annex 11 - Projects selection MCA Charts in EURUMQI Annex 12 - Projects selection list in EURUMQI

Annex 13 - Business Planning tools_Project Finance, Training and Practice

Annex 14 - R. Fa., "Tecnologie verdi, Europa apripista", from II Sole 24 Ore, n. 241 (2013),

Modifica (riservato agli operatori) Modifica (riservato agli operatori)