Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Chen, Xin and Li, Guanqun

La storia del territorio e della trasformazione degli spazi religiosi in Xi'an.

Rel. Andrea Longhi. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea specialistica in Architettura, 2011

Abstract:

Xi'an, is a very typical of the cities which has been relegated from the capitai of unified empire into a regional important city. As a city which has been the capital of Ancient China for the longest time, its locus of development is worthy being researched.

We have divided our research into two parts according to the era, the first part is the Sui and Tang Dynasties when Xi'an was the capitai of the united empire; the second part is the era from late Tang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty when we call it era of "After capitai", in this period, Xi'an was no longer the capitai of China but was an important city of northwest China.

When Xi'an as the capital of the united empire

Xi'an, called Chang'an in ancient times, is the mother of our city; is the birthplaces of our civilization and was once the top of the whole world. During Xian's long history, 13 dynasties such as Qin (221 BC - 206 BC), Western Han (206 BC - 24 AD) and Tang (618 - 906) placed their capitals here. This eternai city, records the great changes of the Chinese nation just like a living history book.

For the ancient Chinese empire, it is with great significance to locate its capital. It is not accidental for ali these emperors to choose the sanic place. Behind this city's legendary city wall, lots secrets- historical, cultural, economic, political and military- were concealed. The long history, highly position and great fame of this city has attracted lots of interests of scholars around the world. A number of comprehensive accounts of Xi'an/Chang' an have appeared. We choose this city for the subject of our study not just for our own Chinese cultural roots. Its greatness and value are far beyond imagination. It should be recognized as a signif

Relatori: Andrea Longhi
Soggetti: U Urbanistica > UB Architettura del Paesaggio
U Urbanistica > UN Storia dell'Urbanistica
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea specialistica in Architettura
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/2493
Capitoli:

Introduction

Chapter 1 General information of Xi'an

1.1 Xi'an's historical status in China

1.2 The geographical environment of Xi'an

Chapter 2 Han Chang'an (206B.C.—24A.D.)

2.2 The construction and development of HanChang'an

2.3 The traditionofChinese city planning

2.3.1 oringins of the idea

2.3.2 The ideai city in Kaogongji

2.3 Layout of Han Chang'an

2.4 Chang'an and Rome

2.5 religion in Han Dynasty

2.5.1 Confucianism

2.5.2 Origin of Confucian Temple

2.5.3 Religious construction-Mingtang (Bright Hall)

Chapter 3 Sui-Tang Chang'an (581A.D—907A.D.)

3.1 Constniction of Daxingcheng (581A.D.—618A.D.)

3.1.1 planner of the city

3.1.2 layout of the city

3.1.3 Palace city

3.1.4 Imperial City

3.1.5 Daxingcheng and Grand Canal

3.2 Tang Chang'an (618A.D.—907A.D.)

3.2.1 Daming Palace and Xingqing Palace

3.2.2 Li-fang System

3.2.3 Market

3.2.4 Residential Area

3.2.5 The influence of the city to other Asian cities

Chapter 4 Religion and Religious Building in Chang'an

4 .1 Religions during Sui-Tang

4.1.1 Confucianism

4.1.2 Daoism

4.1.3 Buddhism

4.1.4 Other religions

4.2 Daoist and Buddhist Architecture in China

4.2.1 Buddhist Architecture

4.2.2 Daoist Architecture

4.3 Religious Buildingin Sui-Tang Chang'an

4.3.1 Daoist Building

4.3.2 Buddhist Building.

4.3.3 Distribution of important religious Buildings in Chang'an

4.4 The Existing Sui-Tang religious Buildings

Chapter 5 The changes of Xi'an City in the Five Dynasties and Song Jin Yuan Dynasties

5.1 The "New City" during thè Five Dynasties (907 A.D.-960 A.D.)

5.2 Jingzhao Fu of Northern Song Dynasty and Jin Dynasty (960 A.D.-1276 A.D.)

5.3 FengyuanLu City in the Yuan Dynasty (1271 A.D.-1368 A.D.)

Chapter 6 Xi'an City in the Ming Dynasty (1368 A.D.-1644 A.D.)

6.1 The expansion of Xi'an City in the early Ming Dynasty.

6.2 Xi'an King Qin's prefecture of the Ming Dynasty.

6.3 The mansions of imperial clan in Xi'an in the the Ming Dynasty

6.4 The changes in Xi'an City's spatial pattern in the middle and late Ming Dynasties

6.5.1 The impact of the Bell Tower's move and construction

6.5.2 The construction, scale and pattern of the Guan City.

6.5 The spatial pattern of urban and rural areas of Xi'an in the Ming Dynasty

6.6.1 The characteristics and the impact of the multi-layers city pattern

6.6.2 The subsidiary functions of suburban areas

6.6 Summary

Chapter 7 Development and changes of Xi'an in the Qing Dynasty

(1644 A.D.-1911 A.D.)

7.1 The construction of the Man City in the early Qing Dynasty

7.2 The scale and thr layout of thr Man city of Xi'an in thr Qing Dynasty

7.2.1 The scale of the Man City

7.2.2 The layout of the Man City

7.3 The construction, the scale and the internal layout of the Xi'an's South City in the Qing Dynasty

7.4 The spatial pattern of urban and rural Xi'an in the Qing Dynasty

7.5.1 The characteristics and the influence of the Multi-layers City pattern

7.5.2 The subsidiary function of the suburban areas (Diagram 7-8)

7.5 Summary

Chapter 8 The development and the changes in religious space of Xi'an during the Ming and Qing Dynasties

8.1 Types of urban and rural temples in Xi'an in the Ming and Qing Dynasties

8.1.1 Historical overview of temples in Xi'an

8.1.2 Types of temples in rural and urban areas of Xi'an in the Ming and Qing Dynasties

8.2 The distribution of urban and rural temples in Xi'an during the Ming and Qing Dynasties

8.2.1 The spatial distribution

8.2.2 The principles of the site choosing

8.3 The scale, the layout and the environment of Xi'an urban and rural temples in the Ming and Qing Dynasties

8.3.1 The scale of the temples

8.3.2 The inner layout of the temples

8.3.3 The environment of temples

8.4 Functions of thè Xi'an temples in the Ming and Qing Dynasties

8.5.1 Faith and worship

8.5.2 Function of tour

8.5.3 Cultural and educational functions

8.5.4 Community center

8.5.5 Economic unit

8.5 Summary

Chapter 9 Conclusion

Appendix -A Chronology

Appendix -B Map of China andposition of Xi'an(Chang'an)

Appendix -C Dynastic capitals in Guanzhong Area

Appendix -D Archaeological sites in Guanzhong area

Appendix -E Pian of Western Han Chang'an

Appendix -F Map of China in Han dyasty

Appendix -G Pian of Sui Tang Chang'an

Appendix -H Tang Dynasty and the emperors

Appendix -I The Tang Palace City

Written Sources and Bibliography

Bibliografia:

1870:

- Alexander Williamson: Journeys in North China, Manchuria, and Eastern Mongoglia; with some Account of Corea, London: Smith, Elder&Co., 1870.

1883:

- S. Wells Williams, LL.D, The Middle Kingdom: A Survey ofthe Geography, Government, Literature, Social life, Arts, and History ofThe Chinese Empire and Its Inhabitant, London: W. H. Allen & CO., 1883.

1890:

- Wu Rizhang: "The Stele Record of The Reconstruction of Shengxin Pavilion in The Xinxingfang Mosque of The Chang'an County", 1890.

- MarkS. Bell: From Peking to Kashgar; Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, Vol. 22(1890).

1891:

- William Woodville Rockhill: Lan of the Lamas; Notes of a Journey Through China, Mongoglia and Tibet, London; Longmans, Green, And Co., 1891.

1896:

- A. H. Keane, "Asia"; Voli, Northern and Eastern Asia, London: Edward Stanford, 1896,

1901:

- Clive Bigham: "A Year in China 1899-1900", London; Macmillan and Co. Limited, New York; The Macmillan Company, 1901.

1963:

- Xi'an Tang City excavation team of Archaeology lnstitute of Chinese Academy of Sciences: "Brief Record of archaeology of Tang Dynasty's Chang'an", "Archaeology" volume 11., 1963.

1968:

- E Ertai(Qing Dynasty): "Anthology of EightBanners Tongzhi", Vol. 24, "Yingjian Zhi 2", Taiwan Studente Book Company, 1968

1978:

- Ma Zhenglin: "Feng Hao- Chang'an-Xi'an", Shangxi People Publishing Home, 1978.

1980:

- Liu Dunzhen: "The History of Chinese Ancient Architecture", China Architecture & Building Press, 1980.

- Zhang Delin: "The Mosques in Lanzhou", "Lanzhou Historical Materia" Vol. 9, Gansu People Publishing House, 1980.

1983:

- Wang Mingjie, Pu Shenggao: "The Market of Chenghuang Terapìe in Xi'an", "Xi'an Historical materia" Vol. 4,1983.

1985:

- Office of Lianhu District of Xi'an: "The Record of Locai Names ofthe Lianhu District in Xi'an ", 1985.

- Guojingyi: "The Scan ofThe Ecnomic Society ofEast Guan in Xi'an", "Shanxi Historical Materia", Vol. 16, Shanxi People Publishing House, 1985.

- Kong Xianyi collated and commented: "Rumeng Record"; Chinese Ancient Books Publishing House, Vol. 3,1985.

1987:

- Yang Hongxun: "Jianzhu kaoguxue Lunwenji (Architecture in China), Beijing: Wenwu chubanshe

(Essays on Archaeology of), 1987.

- Angjiyao: "Bigjianfu Temple-Small Wild Goose Pagoda", "The Historical Materia of Xi'an"; Vol. 10,1987.

1988:

- Pan Yingpeng: "Two Main Temples ofthe Ancient Capitaì's Beilin District", "Beilin Historical Materia", Vol.2,1988.

1989:

- YuZhongjie: "Dongyue Temple And thè Daode Primary School", "Xincheng Historical Materia" Vol.6,1989.

- Tian Kegong, Bai Lang: "20 kilometers Long Street - Talk about the ancient and modern Xi'an", "The Memory ofthe Han City", Sanqin Publishing House, 1989,.

1990:

- ZuliXiliuQapanese: "The Research of Piace of Historicaì Interest of Chang'an", "China's Northwest Lecture Series"; Vol. 103, Lanzhou Historical Books Publishing House, 1990.

1992:

- Tian'ao: "Talkfrom thè Bell Tower", "Beilin Historicaì Data" Vol. 7,1992.

- Ding Yizhuang: "The Study ofThe Eight Banners Garrison System in thè Qing Dynasty", Tianjin Ancient books publishing House, 1992.

- Zhu Yangchao: "Xi'an Manchu", "Xi'an Historicaì Material"; Vol. 18,1992.

1994:

- Arhive Office of Xi'an: "Historicaì materiais to buildXi'an as thè provisionai capital", University of Northwest Press, 1994.

1995:

- Archives of Xi'an: "The Material For Constructing thè Auxiliary Capital"; Northwest University Publishing House, 1995.

- Huang Tuzhen: "The South City Gate of Xi'an", "The Historical Materia of Lianhu District"; Vol. 8, 1995

1996:

- Alfred Schinz: "The magie squarexities in ancient China", Edition Axel Menges, 1996

Shi Nianhai: "Historicaì atlas of Xi'an", published by Xi'an Map Press, version in 1996.

- Huang Tuzhen: "The South City Gate of Xi'an", "The Historical Materia of Lianhu District"; Vol. 8, 1996.

1998:

- Xiang Dedeng: "Xi'an Cultural Relic", Shanxi Scientific And Technic Publishing House, 1998.

1999:

- Zhang Yonglu: "Xi'an Dictionary ofMing and Qing Dynasties"; published by the Shanxi People's Publishing House, 1999.

- Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt: "Chinese Imperial City Planning" University of Hawaii Press April 1999

- Wu Hongqi: "Discussion on the pattem and layout ofChang'an city in the late Tang Dynasty and Five Dinasties", "Historicalgeography of China" the 2nd series in 1999.

- Frederick Hok-ming Cheung, Ming-chiu Lai : "Politics and religion in ancient and medieval Europe and China", BRILL, 1999.

- Chye Kiang Heng: "Cities of aristocrats and bureaucrats" NUSPress, 1999

2000:

- Vietar Cunrui Xiong :"Sui-Tang Chang ' an : a study in the urban history of medieval China", Regents ofthe University of Michigan, 2000

- Xinzhong Yao: "An introduction to Confucianism", Cambridge University Press, 2000.

- Stephen Little, Shawn Eichman: "Taoism and the arts of China", University of California Press, 2000

2001:

- Kenneth Pletcher."The history of China" Britannica Educational Publishing, 2001.

2002:

- Charles Benn: "Daily life in traditional China: thè Tang dynasty", GreenwoodPublishing Group, 2002.

- Eric Stratton: "The evolution of indian stupa architecture in east Asia" Vedams eBooks (P) Ltd, 2002

- Ru Xin: "The Chinese architecture and art history", Ningxia People Publishing House, 2002. Li Yanhong: "Xi'an, Walking on the Old Streets", Workman Publishing House, 2002

2003:

- RobertS. Nelson,Margaret Rose Olin : " Monumenta and memory, made and unmade", University of Chicago Press, 2003

- Xin Yupu: "Tye to solve the mystery of the semicircular corner of Xi'an City", "The culture ofHua Xia", Vol., 2003.

- Zhang Yuhuan: "The history of China's cities", published by Baihua Wenyi Publishing House, 2003.

- Lu Yuanding: "Chinese Residencial Architecture"; Huanan University of Sciences and Technology Publishing House, 2003.

2004:

- Charles F. W. Higham:"Encyclopedia of ancient Asian civilizations ";Facts on File Incorporated,

2004.

2005:

- David Bray : "Social space andgovernance in urban china", Stanford University Press, 2005.

2006:

- Mark Edward Lewis. -."The construction of space in early China "State University of New York,2006.

- Victor Cunrui Xiong: "Emperor Yang of the Sui dynasty: his life, times, and legacy" SUNY Press, 2006.

2007:

- Francesco Bray.Vera Dorofeeva-Lichtmann,Georges Métailié -."Graphics and Text in the Production of Technical Knowledge in China" BRILL, 2007.

- Duan Yushan, Li Man, Wang Chengru: "ReadAgain The Geography ofXi'an"; Chongqing Publishing House, Vol., 2007.

- He Shibi: "The Biography of The First Emperoe of Ming Dynasty- Zhu Yuanzhang"; Jilin People Publishing House, 2007.

- He Hongxing: "The Ancient Capital- Xi'an, a Distinctive City", China Architecture & Building Press, 2007.

2008:

- H.G. Wells : "A Short History ofthe World" Lightning Source Ine, 2008

- Zhu Shiguang: "The Historical Change and Development of Xi'an"; Xi'an Publishing House,

2008.

- Shi Hongshuai: "The Study ofXi'an Urban Geography in the Ming and Qing Dynasty"; Social Sciences Publishing House of China, 2008.

- Shi Hongshuai, Wu Hongqi: "The lmportant Northwest City-Xi'an"; Xi'an Publishing House, 2008.

- The cultural relic bureau of Xi'an: "The Siting of Xi'an"; Shanxi People Publishing House, 2008. Li Shuyuan: "The Gragh of Chinese Culture- Architecture", Jilin People Publishing House, 2008.

2009;

- Xi'an Literary and Historical Committee: 'The Buddhistic and Taoist Temples of Xi'an", Shanxi People Publishing House, 2009.

- Walter Scheidel: "Rome and China : comparative perspectives on ancient world empires" Oxford University Press, 2009

- Mark Edward Lewis: "China 's cosmopolitan empire: thè Tang dynasty", Harvard University Press, 2009

- Allison Lee Palmer: "The A to Z of Architecture" Scarecrow Press, 2009.

2010:

- Meng Aiyun: "The Grafic of the Mountains", Jilin People Publishing House,2010.

- Kathleen Kuiper: " The culture of china " The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010 LeHuu Phuoc: "Buddhist Architecture" Grapkol, 2010

2011:

- Charles Holcombe:" A History of East Asia: From the Origins of Civilization to the Twenty-First Century" Cambridge University Press ,2011.

- Yanxin Cai: " Chinese Architecture" Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Modifica (riservato agli operatori) Modifica (riservato agli operatori)