Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Bezerra, Lia Maria Dias

Networks and territorial development : the case study of Brazil's Federal District.

Rel. Cristiana Rossignolo. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea specialistica in Pianificazione territoriale, urbanistica e ambientale, 2010

Abstract:

[...] Urbanization continues at high speed and even not being in the front of its rise, Latin-America will still be responsible for more 169 million urban inhabitants until 2030, as predicted by the United Nations (in 2004). Latin-America itself will represent 39% of current population and consequently accentuates the importance of poverty alleviation strategies.[...]

Urban regions are made of cities that though not directly collaborating with one another are linked - to speak simply physical - by mobility infrastructures and are aware of the influences the neighboring cities produces on their territory. Which brings to a logical consideration: cities able to position themselves and work inside a network can provide development in fair and sustainable manner within a collective context. Strategic plans for network cities enhance individual and communal specialties and promotes not only spatial but also social-economic integration, encouraged by national and regional policies.

Having the above context in mind I would like to explain this work's articulation.[...]

The first macro theme touches concepts of development guided by the sustainable inclusive, democratic, respectful, dignifying - city idea, but in order to address properly such argument I think it is necessary to identify what the current challenges cities are facing. These current challenges did not appear from night to day, so one step is taken back to be able to afterwards take two ahead: the process of urbanization, in the optic of differenciating what has happened in the territories of developed and in developing countries is also analyzed.[...]

The second theme develops around the organization of space in urban networks and especially zooms in the Brazilian case. The first part of this chapter is dedicated to the collection of concepts and studies of - firstly - the single urban space. This part of the work evolves diminishing its scale, therefore it is directed to the view of one single entity, then understanding its organization and functioning as a (urban) system and, only after these considerations, how these systems are understood the context of its multiple and combined linkages, thus urban networks.[...]

The case study of Brazil's Federal District is the main theme of the third part of this work and I would like first to justify the choice of this area, as follow, and then explain how this part is articulated.

Since have worries have been drawn towards sustainable growth of cities in the developing world, the object of analysis of this work is in Brazil, a country known by its fast urbanization, big urban agglomerations and social disparity despite today's economic rise. The case study does not limit itself in a national framework, but goes further deep to understand the dynamics behind Brazil's Federal District (DF), acknowledged by the construction of a new capital in the sixties, has then dealt with cities that were not initially planned. Born as provisory campsites for construction workers, slowly they were accepted. Nowadays they are responsible for almost 90% of the population in the DF.

These new cities, once called satellite-cities, are now having their economical importance recognized for the functioning of Brasilia and the whole Federal District. They are very diverse, ones having a very developed and urbanized center, services and industries whereas others are basically dormitory cities with litde local commerce and not only but also economically dependent on other cities. Therefore indicating new urban centralities and hierarchies in the functioning of this network.

The year of 2010 will be grandly marked by the 50th Anniversary of Brasilia commemoration and, in addition to that, the Federal District Government (GDF) has launched a "Basic Plan for Urban Development in the Federal District" (Projeto Bàsico de Desenvolvimento Urbano DF). The Plan's main goal is to guide organized urban growth within a regional structure that articulates cities and urban areas among themselves. Projects and actions are to (a) support and complement local urban planning, (b) provide subsidy for improving and adjusting the DF's Territorial Ordination Plan, PDOT - Piano Diretor de Ordenamento Territorial do Distrito Federal - and (c) establish immediate administration actions.

Knowing this, the goal of this work is to understand DF's city network dynamics, its various readings and analyze its urban development instruments. Mainly this third part is divided in identifying the networks, the formation of its territory whys and abouts, urban planning instruments and workings and how these last elements influence the territory dynamics. Then, DF is explored together with some of its sorrounding, as a whole, to understand the recognition of its external influences. The last part of the chapter is dedicated to understanding the last PDOT (approved in 2009) in the optic of collaborating in a network.[...]

Relatori: Cristiana Rossignolo
Soggetti: U Urbanistica > UK Pianificazione urbana
G Geografia, Antropologia e Luoghi geografici > GD Estero
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea specialistica in Pianificazione territoriale, urbanistica e ambientale
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/1784
Capitoli:

ACKNOWLEGMENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF FIGURES

TABLE OF MAPS TABLE OF TABLES ABBREVIATIONS PREMISE

BRAZILIAN STATES' MAP AND ABBREVIATIONS

INTRODUCTION

1. TOWARDS AN EQUALITARIAN URBAN DEVELOPMENT

1.1. Contemporary urban challenges 1.1.1. Unequal urbanization 1.1.2. Brazil's urbanization process 1.2. The 'Sustainable Development' 1.2.1. In the optic of urban sustainable planning 1.2.2. Brazil's sustainable and equitable urban planning

2. ORGANIZATION OF SPACE IN URBAN NETWORKS

2.1. Studying urban networks 2.1.1. Urban spaces 2.1.2. From systems to networks 2.1.3. Urban networks 2.2. Brazilian urban networks 2.2.1. Relations between networks and high-leveled centers 2.2.2. Main differences in relation to the previous studies 2.2.3. Macro analyzing the networks evolution

3. THE CASE STUDY: FEDERAL DISTRICT'S TERRITORIAL AND LOCAL SYSTEMS

3.1. Local systems as networks nodes 3.2. Knowing the territory: Federal District's formation and networks

3.3. New Capital's main contradictions 3.4. Brasilia's territory formation in the optic of urban planning

3.5. Current Territory Dynamics

3.5.1. The first phase: 1956 to 1973 3.5.2. The second phase: 1974 to 1987 3.5.3. The third phase: 1988 to 2009

3.5.4. Brief conclusion

3.6. Brasilia and its surrounding: overall classifications and instruments

3.6.1. PERGEB (Programa Especial da Regiao Geoeconomica de Brasilia)

3.6.2. AMAB (Associacao de Municipios Adjacentes a Brasilia)

3.6.3. ZEE (Zoneamento Ecologico-Economico)

3.6.4. Urban agglomerate

3.6.5. RIDE (Regiao Integrada de Desenvolvimento do Distrito Federal e Entorno)

3.7. PDOT 2009

3.7.1. Main goals

3.7.2. Development concept 3.7.3 Regional context

3.7.4. Economic Development Areas:

3.7.4. Program Pro-DF II/funding from Fundepe (confirm and explain)...

3.7.5. Brief Conclusion

4. CONCLUSION

5. ANNEXES

5.1. 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

5.2. The City's Statute

5.3. Brazil's 1988 Constitution on Urban Policy

5.4. World Charter on the Right to the City

5.5. Complimentary maps on Brazilian urban networks

5.5.1. Federal Administration in 2006

5.5.2. Business Administration in 2004

5.5.3. Aerial connections in 2004

5.5.4. Collective Transport Road Connections in 2007

5.6. Brasilia's urban network: area of influence matrix

5.7. PDOT 2009 Enlarged Maps

5.7.1. Transport Structuring Strategies, Multifunctional Poles, Space Dynamics and Urban Revitalization

5.7.2. 'Economical Areas'

6. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Tavole:

Table of Figures

Figure 1: Sustainalbe development in space and time

Figure 2: Von Thunen's model

Figure 3: Rentability according to land use

Figure 4: Christaller's model and its market principle

Figure 5: Human activities model

Figure 6: DF quadrilateral and its surroundings

Figure 7: Brasilia's external connections

Figure 8: Brasilia's area of influence

Figure 9: Metro lines and its expansions

Figure 10: DF's Dynamic Territorial Structures Towards Growth

Figure 11: DF's Dynamic Territorial Structures Inhibiting Growth

Figure 12: PERGEBE's road network

Figure 13: PERGEBE's five regions

Figure 14: Various territorial divisions

Figure 15: RIDE/DF area

Table of Maps

Map 1: Urban Networks in 2007

Map 2: Federal Administration in 2006

Map 3: Business Administration in 2004

Map 4: Areal Connections in 2004

Map 5: Collective transport road connections in 2005

Map 6: Brazil's urban network in 1966

Map 7: Brazil's urban network in 1978

Map 8: Brazil's urban network in 1993

Map 9: Occupation in I960

Map 10: Occupation in 1970

Map 11: Urban agglomeration in 1980

Map 12: Urban area in 1996

Map 13: Transport Structuring Strategies, Multifunctional Poles, Space Dynamics and Urban Revitalization

Map 14: 'Economical Areas'

Map 15: ADEs Analyzed

Map 16: Brazil's Federal Administration in 2006

Map 17: Brazil's Business Administration in 2004

Map 18: Brazsil's Aerial Connections in 2004

Map 19: Brazil's Collective Transport Road Connections in 2007

Table of Tables

Table 1: Urbanization process in Brazil from 1950 to 2050

Table 2: Fist level networks dimensions

Table 3: GNP composition in the agglomeration nucleus (1980-85-90)

Table 4: Housing Distribution by Monthly Income, according to Cities in 1991

Table 5: Housing Distribution by Monthly Income, according to Administrative Regions in 2004

Table 6: RA's Population Growth from 1991 to 1996

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