Politecnico di Torino (logo)

Goia, Francesco

Liquid façades facciate liquide: innovative concepts and technologies for the building envelope of the future = concept e tecnologie innovative per le pelli architettoniche del futuro.

Rel. Maurizio Lucat, Valentina Serra, Anna Mangiarotti, Aries Bergsma. Politecnico di Torino, Corso di laurea specialistica in Architettura, 2008

Abstract:

During thè past decades and especially in thè last years of thè XX century, facade construction has increased considerably in terms of complexity. Definitely, there is no doubt that facade is becoming one of thè main - sometimes, thè most important - subject of discussion, due to thè different functions and requirements that contemporary building skin must face. Thè move toward thè Ecological age of construction has outiined thè importance and influence of this component on thè behaviour of thè entire building. At thè present, architects and technicians know thè cruciai role that thè buiiding enclosure plays in energy savings, in user's customizability and climatic performance of thè living environment. Additionally, facade keeps on expressing thè appearance of thè architecture, so that thè building envelope needs to suit formai and aesthetical requisites too.

Within thè topic building envelope, transparent facade is probabiy thè one on which more efforts are concentrated: since thè spread of thè Modernism - glass is an icon of modern architecture - architects and common people have been fascinating by thè transparency and lightness of this type of cladding surface. It wouid be incorrect to affirm that no changes - in tochnology, materiais, design and construction methods - have occurred from thè first curtain-walls' realizations, but relevant improvements are stili necessary to drive this component - but also many other branches of thè building industry - toward a more efficient and sustainable construction.

Buiiding industry is extremely conservative. Facade industry claims to be one of thè most innovative fieids of thè construction, but if compared to many other produci industries, innovation in architectural envelope is quite poor. There are many reasons for this situation and it is not easy to carried out radicai changes able to shake thè ordinary in market, production and methodology, promoting innovation. However, a big step forward is now taking piace: architecture - and facade too � seams to move from a mechanical paradigm to a new informatics paradigm.

Dynamicity, customizability, changeability, integrality, ephemeralness are some of thè - potential - features of thè new generation of building skin. Lì is noi possible to foresee thè success and thejnfluence of this change on thè worid of construction: nevertheless, it appears an extremely promising and interseting topic for architects. Liquid facadesjnnovative concepì and technologies for thè building envelope ofthe future is an investigation on thè use of liquids in transparent facade. It is a collection of principles and concepì design proposais for new, adaptive building skins, where liquids are used within transparent, glazedelementstoperformdifferenttasks-withoutchangingradicallythe appearance of thè facade and maintaining a high degree of transparency. Thè topic liquid facade is faced with a multidisciplinary approach, keeping together thè different sides of thè question - aesthetical features, building physics, technology, design of construction and many others. To reach this goal, reflections and analyses on thè several fieids involved in thè concept design procedure are necessary. Therefore, Liquid fagades is not oniy a list of proposais. It is an overview on current facades' panorama, it faces climate requirements and building envelopes' efficiency, it reflects on thè features and design methodology for thè new generation of

building skins.

In particular, thè first chapter deais with thè role of thè facade in contemporary architecture and provides some relevant examples of current trends in facades and architectural design. It also analyzes and describes thè paradigms of contemporary building skins that are useful to understand today's situation and - try to - foresee future developments in thè building envelope.

In thè second chapter, elements of environmental comfort a climate requirements are provided, as well as basic physical principles involved in thè performance of thè facade. Despite thè brief overview on these concepts - which is definitely not exhaustive - notions and observations contained on this chapter are mandatory to face thè concept design phase. Additionally, some information and basic principles ofthe adaptive envelope are presented too.

Current technologies for transparent envelope are classified in chapter three. Here, post-and-beam facades, prefabricated modular facades, doublé skin facades and component facades are described, together

with a wide set of examples and technological details. Thè understanding of current technologies and construction design is a cruciai part of thè knowledge that is necessary for thè development of new proposai for facade.

Chapter tour contains some reflections on thè lack of innovation in thè facade industry and in thè whole building industry. Moreover, it outiines relevant information about this topic to provide architects instrument for promoting and leading thè innovation process in building technology.

Finally methodology of concept design, which is assumed as a key aspect for thè innovation and for thè definition of proposais for liquid facades, is described in detail.

According thè paradigms of current and future facade described in thè first chapter, chapter five provides a list of driving forces and supporting elements for thè development of possible future building skin. Here, once again thè future facade is envisioned being a living interactive component, necessary to increase thè sustainability of thè construction. Thè chapter contains also a brief introduction on thè topic liquid facade, demonstrating thè potentiais and thè positive attitude that liquid facades show. Finally, two examples of existing liquid facades are described, in order to confirm thè effective realizableness of these technologies. Thè following chapter contains six proposais for liquid facades under thè form of concepts design, developed with a multidisciplinary approach.

Three groups of liquid facades have been identified, according to thè different tasks of each liquid facades' class: liquid facade as a solar collector and ciimate contro! system; liquid facade for thè visual comfort; multimedia liquid facade. Thè chapter ends with some suggestions for combinations of liquid facades.

Thè last chapter presents a criticai review of thè research and concept design work presented in this report. Additionally, it envisions some of thè cruciai challenges for thè next generation of facades, outiines thè key aspects to be further investigated for thè successfui outcome of liquid facades and invite architects to take responsability for promoting innovation.

Relatori: Maurizio Lucat, Valentina Serra, Anna Mangiarotti, Aries Bergsma
Soggetti: A Architettura > AO Progettazione
T Tecnica e tecnologia delle costruzioni > TE Tecnologia dei materiali
A Architettura > AD Bioarchitettura
Corso di laurea: Corso di laurea specialistica in Architettura
URI: http://webthesis.biblio.polito.it/id/eprint/1199
Capitoli:

CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS VII

CONTENTS IX

PREFACE XIII

1 THE BUILDING ENVELOPE IN THÈ XXF CENTURY

1 .1LSURFACE AND CONTEMPORARY ARCHITECURE

1.2TENDECIES IN CONTEMPORARY BUILDING SKINS

1.2.1_FREE FORM FACADES

1.2.2_MULTIMEDIA FACADES

1.2.3_MATERIAL FACADES

1.2.4_HIGH-EFFIC1ENT FACADES

1 3 PARADIGMS OF THÈ CONTEMPORARY ENVELOPE

1,4ARCHITECTURAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL DESIGN FOR PRESENT-DAY FACADE

2.1 FROM THÈ PROTECTIVE SHELL TO TODAY-S BUILDING ENVELOPE

2 2ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT AND INDOOR CLIMATE REQUIREMENTS

2 3BASIC NOTIONS OF BU-LDING PHYSICS RELATED TO THÈ ARCHITECTURAL ENVELOPE

2 3.1 PHYSICAL PRICIPLES OF THÈ BUILDING'S THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEM

2.3.2^ PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES RELATED TO NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHT

2.3.3_PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF SOUND TRANSMISSION

2.4_PLANNING THÈ PERFORMANCE OF THÈ FACADE

2 4 1 THERMAL COMFORT: DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR THÈ FACADE

2.4.2VISUAL COMFORT AND USE OF DAYLIGHT DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR THÈ FACADE

2.4.3 ACUSTIC COMFORT: DESIGN STRATEGIES FOR THÈ FAQADE

2.5 TOWARD THÈ ADAPTIVE AND DYNAMIC SKIN

2 CLIMATE INDOOR REQUIREMENTS AND BUILDING ENVELOPES EFFICIENCY

3_CURRENTTECHNOLOGIES FOR TRANSPARENT FAQADES

3.1_THE WALL AND THÈ FAQADE

3.2_POST-AND-BEAM FAQADES

3.2.1_CABLE-NET FAQADES

3.2.2_STRUCTURAL GLASS FAQADES

3.3_PREFABRICATED MODULAR FAQADES

3.4_DOUBLE SKIN FAQADES

3.4.1_SECOND SKIN FAQADES

3.4.2_CORRIDOR AND VERTICAL FAQADES

3.4.3_BOX-WINDOW FAQADES

3.4.4_SHAFT-BOX FAQADES

3.5_COMPONENT FAQADES

4_THE PROCESS OF INNOVATION AND THÈ BUILDING INDUSTRY

4.1INNOVATION BETWEEN PROFESSION AND ETHICS

4.2_FEATURES OF INNOVATION

4.2.1TYPES AND DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION

4.2.2_SOURCES AND CIRCULATION OF INNOVATION

4.2.3JARGETS AND SUCCESS OF INNOVATION

4.3JNNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND CONSTRUCTION

4.4_FAQADE INDUSTRY AND INNOVATION

4.5_LEADING THÈ PROCESS OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION

5_THE FUTURE ENVELOPE AND LIQUID FAQADES

5.1_THE BUILDING SKIN OF THÈ FUTURE

5.1.1_DRIVINGFORCES

5.1.2_SUPPORTING ELEMENTS

5.2_SUSTAINABILITY AS A GOAL, INTEGRATION AS A MEANS

5.2.1 SUSTAINABLE HABITAT CONCEPT BY PHILIPS

5.3LIQUID FAQADES' CONCEPTS

5,4_EXISTING LIQUID FAQADES

5.4,1_MCKEE FLUIDIZED GLAZING SYSTEM

5.4.2THE DIGITAL WATER PAVILION

6 CONCEPTS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIQUID FAQADES

6.1_LIQUID FAQADES AS SOLAR COLLECTORS AND CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEMS

6.1.1_BASIC LIQUID FAQADE

6.1.2_DOUBLE LIQUID FAQADES

6.1.3JNTEGRAL LIQUID FAQADE

6.2_LIQUID FAQADES FOR THÈ VISUAL COMFORT

6.2.1_SUNSHADING LIQUID FAQADE

6.2.2_SELF-LIGHTING LIQUID FAQADE

6.3_MULTIMEDIA LIQUID FAQADE

6.3.1_LIQUID CRYSTAL FAQADE

6.4_COMBINATIONS OF LIQUID FAQADES

7_TOWARD A NEW GENERATION OF BUILDING SKINS

7.1_ACRITICALREVIEW

7.2_CRUCIAL CHALLENGES FOR THÈ NEXT GENERATiON OF BUILDING SKINS

7.2.1_COMPLEXITYVS. EFFICIENCY

7.2.2_COMPLEXITYVS. USABILITY

7.2.3_FUNCTIONALITY TECHNOLOGY VS. USABILITY TECHNOLOGY

7.3_A FUTURE FOR LIQUID FAQADES

7.3.1_LIQUID FAQADES AS SOLAR COLLECTORS AND CLIMATE CONTROL SYSTEMS

7.3.2LIQUID FAQADES FOR THÈ VISUAL COMFORT

7.3.3_MULTIMEDIA LIQUID FAQADE

7.4_FINAL PERSONAL REMARKS

_ANNEX_VERSIONE RIDOTTA IN LINGUA ITALIANA239

_NOTA INTRODUTTIVA239

_PREFAZIONE .240

_L'INVOLUCRO CONTEMPORANEO: TENDENZE E PARADIGMI DELLA PELLE ARCHITETTONICA DEL XXI SECOLO242

IL CONTROLLO DEI FLUSSI PER IL COMFORT INTERNO E LO SVILUPPO DELL'INVOLUCRO DINAMICO ADATTATIVO248

_TECNOLOGIE PER L'INVOLUCRO TRASPARENTE E PROGETTAZIONE TECNOLOGICA CONTEMPORANEA254

INNOVAZIONE TECNOLOGICA TRA INDUSTRIA DELLE COSTRUZIONI E RESPONSABILITÀ' DELL'ARCHITETTO260

_L'INVOLUCRO DEL FUTURO E LE FACCIATE LIQUIDE266

_CONCEPT E TECNOLOGIE PER FACCIATE LIQUIDE271

CONCLUSIONI 280

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